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Gemstone Guide - Gemstone Education

This Gemstone Education defines the five most essential characteristics of Gemstone along with tips for its care. By understanding these characteristics, you'll be able to shop with confidence.


The color of a gemstone is its most significant characteristic, and many jewelers consider it to be the most vital evaluation criterion. Gemstones are found in all the colors, one can imagine, Color of a gemstone depends on following three characteristics: hue, saturation, and tone.

  • Hue

  • Hue is the basic or unique color of the gemstone. In other words, hue is described as the shade, tint or sensation of a color. While almost all gemstones have some shades of other colors, the most valuable gemstones are those that exhibit a pure color and only ‘slight’ hues of other colors in addition to their primary color.

  • Saturation

  • Saturation is a measure of the intensity or purity of a gem's hue or color. A gemstone that is free of gray or brown hues is considered to be strongly saturated and is more valuable than a gemstone with lower saturation. Saturation often decides the cut of a gemstone. A high-quality gemstone cut delivers an even color throughout the stone and exposes the fewest inclusions.

  • Tone

  • Tone represents the depth of a gemstone color, ranging from colorless to black. In other words, tone is described as the relative lightness or darkness of a Hue. Gemstone tone is described as ‘light’, ‘medium-light’, ‘medium’, ‘medium-dark’, and ‘dark’. Medium-light to medium-dark tone is considered as most valuable range.

    All the above three characteristics are associated with each other and plays very crucial role in determining the gemstone’s color. The more intense the color, more is the value. This does not mean darker, but intense.


Clarity is a term used to describe the absence or presence of flaws inside or on the surface of a gemstone. A flawless gemstone is rare and usually expensively priced. Most gemstones have inclusions, or tiny mineral flaws, that can be seen under magnification or by the careful eye. A gemstone may have inclusions, cracks, spots, clouds, or any other blemish or imperfection.

Clarity is a key factor in determining quality and the value of a gemstone. Inclusions not only distract the eye, but interfere with the behavior of light in the gem, and have a significant affect on brilliancy or sparkle. Generally most minerals contain inclusions and spots but if they do not affect the durability of colored gems then these inclusions or spots will not devalue much for the gems except diamond.

For diamonds, Clarity Grade Scale from F (flawless) to I3 (included 3) is used whereas for other colored gemstones a different grading scale is used. Colored stones have different habits of clarity, so that they are classified into three ‘Types’, which are defined as under:

  • Type I

  • Type I colored stones include stones with very little or no inclusions. This category can include Aquamarine, Blue Topaz, Zircon, Morganite, Tanzanite, etc.

    Clarity in the Type I group is classified as VVS (minute to detectable), VS (minor), SI1 (noticeable), SI2 (obvious) or I (included)

  • Type II

  • Type II colored stones include stones that often have a few inclusions. This category can include Corundum, Garnets, Iolite, Peridot, Quartz (Amethyst, Citrine, Ametrine), Ruby, Sapphire, Spinel, etc.

    Clarity in the Type II group is classified as VVS (minor), VS (noticeable), SI1 (obvious), SI2 (prominent), or I (prominent, affecting appearance).

  • Type III

  • Type III colored stones includes stones that usually always have inclusions. This category can include Emeralds, Tourmaline, etc.

    Clarity in the Type III group is classified as VVS (noticeable), VS (Obvious), SI1 (prominent), SI2 (more prominent), or I1 (affecting appearance or durability).


A good cut is something that may give a gemstone its beauty and brilliance. A gemstone's cut refers to its proportions and symmetry. The stone should be symmetrical in all dimensions so that it will appear balanced, and so that its facets will reflect light evenly, which will provide good brilliance to stone. A well-cut faceted gemstone reflects light back evenly across its surface area when held face up. If the stone is too deep and narrow, surface area will be dark and if it is too shallow and wide, parts of the stone will be washed out and lifeless.

While cutting, color of a gemstone should also be taken into account for optical efficiency. If a stone's color is highly saturated, a shallow cut will allow it to pass more light, while a deeper cut may increase the vividness of a less saturated gem. There is no generally accepted grading system for gemstone cut.

  • Cabochon Cut

    In the cabochon cut, the upper surface of the stone is smoothed and rounded into a simple curve of any degree of convexity; the lower surface may be concave, convex, or flat. All the remaining cuts have flat facets.

  • Table Cut

    In the table cut, the facets of the natural octahedron of the diamond are ground to smoothness and polished; one facet, the table, is ground much larger than any other and made the top of the gem, while the opposite facet, the culet, is left quite small.

  • Rose Cut

    The rose cut consists of a flat base and (usually) 24 triangular facets—resembling a cabochon with facets.

  • Brilliant Cut

    The brilliant cut is scientifically designed to bring out the maximum brilliancy of the stone. The crown of a brilliant consists of a table and 32 smaller facets, of which 8 are quadrilaterals and 24 are triangles; the base, a culet and 24 larger facets, of which 8 are quadrilaterals and 16 are triangles. The base and crown are separated by a girdle. The brilliant cut has certain proportions—in general, the depth of the crown is one third the depth of the stone and the width of the table one half the width of the stone.

  • Other Cuts

           MazarinCut      OldEuropeanCut     OldMineCut           PointCut             SingleCut






In addition to the above defined cuts, stones are also cut in a variety of square, triangular, step, emerald, and trapezoidal faceted cuts. The use of such cuts is largely determined by the original shape of the stone. Large rubies, sapphires, and emeralds are often cut square or rectangular with a large table facet surrounded by a relatively small number of supplementary facets.

The process of cutting and polishing gems is called gem cutting or lapidary, while a person who cuts and polishes gems is called a gem cutter or a lapidary (sometimes lapidarist). Few gemstones such as pearls and coral (usually referred to organic minerals) are not cut at all and many times left in their natural state. However, it is customary to polish these items, as with all gemstones. The quality of a gemstone's cut can have a dramatic impact on how it looks but only a small impact on the price per carat.


Similar to diamonds, a gemstone’s weight is also measured in carats where one carat equals 200 milligrams. However, in case of gemstone, this may not give an accurate idea of its size, because different types of stones have different densities Two gemstones of the same carat weight may be different in sizes. For example, a 1 carat Sapphire or Ruby will be smaller than a 1 carat Emerald, though they have the same carat weight, because Sapphires and Rubies are denser than Emeralds. At the same time, a 1 carat Diamond will be larger than a 1 carat Ruby as a Diamond is less dense than a Ruby. Gemstones can also be measured in dimensions (diameter, length, and width).

Illustration of gemstone dimensions (L/W = Length to Width Ratio)













In case of gemstones, larger stones are not always valuable. The rarity at certain size will determine value of gemstones. A gem that is available naturally in weights of 10 carats or more may be less valuable than one that rarely available in large sizes.


Gemstone Enhancement is a treatment process other than cutting and polishing that improves the appearance (color / clarity), durability or availability of a gemstone. This treatment covers heating, oiling, irradiation, waxing, dying, bleaching etc.

There are many ways to enhance the appearance and durability of gemstones. Some of these treatments or enhancements, are permanent where as others are temporary. Gemstone enhancement has become such a common as well as accepted practice that experts believe the vast majority of stones are treated in some way. It's important to remember that most gemstone enhancements greatly improve the appearance - and hence the value - of a stone.

All gemstones can be divided into 3 basic categories:

  1. N – The ‘N’ symbol appears on the chart only for natural stones which are not currently known to be enhanced.

  2. E – The ‘E’ symbol appears on the chart only for those gemstones, which are routinely enhanced. The type of enhancement covered by this symbol is indicated on the following chart.

  3. Third category covers those gemstones which are treated in a non-traditional manner and that enhancement process or code is not covered under ‘N’ & ‘E’ symbols.

Chart for Gemstone Enhancement Information

B - Bleaching: The use of chemicals or other agents to lighten or remove a gemstone's color. Pearls and ivory also may be bleached to lighten their color.

C - Coating: The use of such surface enhancements as lacquering, enameling, inking, foiling, or sputtering of films to improve appearance, provide color or add other special effects.

D - Dyeing: The introduction of coloring matter into a gemstone to give it new color, intensify present color or improve color uniformity.

F - Filling: As a by-product of heat enhancement, the presence of solidified borax or similar colorless substances which are visible under properly illuminated 10X magnification.

G - Gamma/Electron Irradiation: The use of gamma and/or electron bombardment to alter a gemstone's color; may be followed by a heating process.

H - Heating: Heating is one of the most common treatments used to enhance the natural beauty of colored gemstones. It is a permanent process that can dramatically improve the color and/or clarity in a number of stones, including sapphires, rubies, diamonds, aquamarine, amethyst, tanzanite, topaz, tourmaline and other stones.

I - Infilling: The intentional filling of surface breaking cavities or fractures usually with glass, plastic, opticon with hardeners and/or other hardened foreign substances to improve durability, appearance and/or add weight.


Gemstones are generally hard and durable in nature but due to our day-to-day activities, it is expected that our gemstone jewelry get dirty and soiled. Even gems can be scratched, chipped or dulled if not handled correctly. With proper care, they can last a lifetime and can even be handed down as heirlooms to future generations without losing their shine and sparkle. Organic gems like pearls, amber, and coral require special care because they are porous.

Here are some tips that will help you to preserve the life and beauty of your gemstones:

Cleaning of Colored Gemstone Jewelry

Regular cleaning of Gemstone Jewelry is essential to maintain shine and brilliance of gems. On wearing them, they get dirty as you use various skin and body care regimen such as soaps, lotions and even our skin's natural oils. Even when you are not wearing them, they collect dust. If you are cleaning your gemstone jewelry by your own then it will take few minutes to clean the same but before cleaning, you must be aware about the cleaning at home and cleaning by a professional jeweler:

Storing of Colored Gemstone Jewelry

Storing of gemstone jewelry is also important as a gem can scratch another gem, as well as other jewelry pieces. Storage of gemstone jewelry needs following precautions:

  • Gemstone jewelry should be stored individually in a soft cloth pouch to ensure that a gem should not scratch other gems or other jewelry.

  • Gemstone jewelry pieces are best stored in a fabric-lined jewel case or in a box with compartments or dividers.

Wearing Precautions for Colored Gemstone Jewelry

  • You should not wear gemstone jewelry while playing sports, working on heavy equipments or relaxing in a pool or spa (especially if you are in chlorine regularly). Gemstone can be chipped by a hard blow, and even everyday activity can loosen jewelry setting.

  • You should avoid the situation where your gemstones come in contact with chlorine bleach, hair spray or other chemicals because they can pit or discolor the mounting. Put on your gemstone jewelry after using makeup, perfume or cologne, and hair products.

  • If you have old style jewelry, perhaps passed down to you then consider resetting the gems into a modern style jewelry piece. Gems should be worn and enjoyed and not kept locked away in a safety deposit box.

If you will follow the above mentioned caring tips then your gemstone jewelry will always shine and sparkle like a new one.