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Jewelry Guide - Jewelry Glossary
Knowledge of precious metals will bring you to further questions and make you inquisitive about the various terminologies associated with metals and its jewelry. To quench this thirst of knowing more, you can visit our Metal Glossary.
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Very small and tiny sketches on facet joints which fabricates white hairy lines instead of sharp crisp facet edges. Antique and other old or heavily used diamonds can have abrasions.

Acid Etching

This process involves engrossing the metal in an acid solution while protecting certain parts with a substance like wax or rosin, which is known as resist, in order to create a pattern on the metal's surface.

Acid Test

Acid test determines the purity of gold through the use of nitric acid and aqua regia.


Acidizing refers to the treatment of diamonds with hot acids to clean them after mining or after cutting, specially to remove oxides or polishing residues from surface fissures.

Actual Gold Content

Actual gold content describes the amount of gold that exists in a metal object after subtracting all the alloys.


This refers to the surface luster and shine of a diamond.


The word Diamond comes from this ancient Greek word ‘Adamas’, which means unconquerable.

Adhesive Ear Post

Adhesive ear post is an ear post with a flat surface, which is used with a 2 sided adhesive dot rather than solder or fusion for attaching an ornament part of the earring.


The chemical symbol for silver.


Agate, a variety of Chalcedony Quartz, is found in various colors and patterns with 7 on Mohs hardness scale.


Alexandrite is a form of the mineral Chrysoberyl which is a very attractive and rare stone. It is 8.5 on Mohs hardness scale and mainly found in Russia, Sri Lanka, Brazil, Burma, Madagascar and USA. The most sensational feature about this stone is its surprising ability to change its color under different forms of light. Green or bluish-green in daylight, red in candle light, green in fluorescent light and reddish-purple in standard electric (tungsten) light.


An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals usually mixed to enhance the strength and/or appearance of a particular metal. Copper, silver, nickel, zinc etc are frequently used as alloy metals and usually are mixed with all precious metals for some specific purpose.


Stones those have been sourced from alluvial deposits in river beds or transported by water and deposited in seas and lakes. Many gems, including diamonds, are found in alluvial deposits and Alluvial stones are usually of gem quality.


It is a mixture of alloys, which is a substitute of silver, consisting of 55% copper, 20% nickel, 20% zinc, and 5% tin.


It is an inexpensive, lightweight and malleable silver-white ore with a bluish tinge. Aluminum is remarkably resisted to oxidation and used in many alloys.


The gemstone Amber is the fossilized liquid, resin, or gum from pine trees and available in various colors like golden yellow, golden orange, brown, green, red and violet. These gemstones may contain insects, plant material, feathers and other small objects that were trapped millions of years ago when the resin was sticky. Amber is quite soft but perfect for jewelry as it can be easily cut, etched, faceted, or carved.

American Cut

Marcel Tolkowsky’s mathematically calculated ideal proportions and facet angles, to produce maximum brilliancy consistent with a high degree of fire in a round brilliant diamond or gemstone, are known as American Cut or Ideal Cut.


Amethyst is a variety from Quartz family, colored by traces of manganese, titanium and iron. Deeper-colored amethysts are more highly valued. It is available in colors like purple, pale lavender to deep reddish purple, bluish violet etc. Rich purple has always been a rare and noble color. Amethyst’s name comes from Greek word 'Amethystos' mean 'Not Intoxicated' or ‘Not Drunken’. The Amethyst is said to bring good luck and to radiate love. This brilliantly sparkling stone is the most valued gemstone from the quartz family. It is 7 on Mohs hardness scale and mainly found in Sri Lanka, Brazil, Burma, Canada, East Africa, India, North America, Russia, Uruguay, Madagascar and Australia.


An amulet, also known as talisman, is a pendant or charm worn as a protection from evil, illness or to bring good luck.


An anklet, also known as ankle bracelet, is a jewelry ornament worn around the ankle. Anklets are more popular in women and used as a fashion ornament.


It is a process of providing multi-phased heat and stress treatment that alters the microstructure of a metal adding strength, pliability and hardness.

Anniversary Band

Anniversary band is a popular type of ring usually given as a gift by husband to wife on their wedding anniversary. It contains a continuous row of diamonds or other gems of the same size and cut.


Anodizing is a process used to dye and/or modify the surface of a metal using electrolysis. The dye enters the pores in the etched oxide surface of the metal. Usually metals like aluminum, magnesium, titanium and tantalum are often anodized.

Antique Jewelry

Antique jewelry refers to jewelry which is made more than 100 years ago.


Appraisal is a written statement based on estimated retail replacement value of the diamond or gemstone or piece of jewelry. Appraisal is mainly used for insurance purposes and should be updated after every few years.


Aquamarine is a verity of mineral Beryl. This is a fascinatingly beautiful gemstone found in colors like light blue of the sky to the deep blue of the sea. The more intense the color of an Aquamarine, the more value is put on it. Its hardness makes it very tough which comes in between 7.5 to 8 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Brazil, Madagascar, Russia, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Zambia, Mozambique and USA. Its name is derived from the Latin 'Aqua' (water) and 'Mare' (sea). Aquamarine is one of the most popular and best-known gemstones.

Artificial Diamond

Artificial diamonds are produced by man in laboratory and mainly used in making artificial jewelry.


An analysis of a metal to determine its purity by scraping a bit of metal from the metal piece.


Asterism is the star effect that appears on some gemstones. This star effect is a reflection that appears as two or more intersecting bands of light across the surface of a gem. Usually asterism is found in Ruby, Sapphire and Garnet.


The chemical symbol for gold. Au is derived from Latin word ‘aurum’ for gold.


Aventurescent gemstones are those which display a colorful play of sparkling reflections due to small metallic inclusions.


Baguette is a French word meaning ‘Rod’. It is a step cut for small rectangular shaped diamonds and other gemstones.


A bail is an oval or teardrop or D shaped metal element that is attached at the top of a pendant. It allows a pendant to hang from a chain in a free form.


A band is a type of ring that possesses the same width all the way round and mainly used for wedding rings.


Bangle is circular in shape which comes in a solid form and usually worn in pairs in both hands. These bangles are generally made of metals, glass, wood, plastic etc.

Bar Setting

In this style of setting, stones are individually set between these bars leaving the sides of the stones exposed to light. This method maximizes the amount of light entering the stones which create superior brilliance and sparkle.


Diamonds and other gemstones mainly pearls which are irregular in shape or available in freeform.

Barrel clasp

A barrel clasp is a round or oval shaped jewelry fastener that resembles a barrel. The clasp pieces contain ridges around the barrel for easier grasping and these pieces screw together just by rotating one piece into the other. Barrel clasps are frequently used in necklaces and bracelets as they provide greater security.


A barrette is a pin or clasp that is used to hold hair in place. Usually this is worn by women either as a hair pin to keep hair in place or just as an ornament.

Base Metal

Base metal is a term used to refer any non-precious metal. Generally it is used as a base for gold-filled or gold plated coverings.


Bead is a small rounded element, made from a variety of materials, with a hole through it. Beads are commonly made from stone, shell, glass or plastic.

Bead Cap

Bead caps are metal findings that are placed on either one or both ends of a stone bead to cover any roughness or damage around the drilled hole.

Bead Clasp

A bead clasp is a type of clasp mechanism that is hidden in a bead or pearl.

Bead Cone

Bead cone is a metal cone shape which is used to secure and cover the ends of multiple strands of beading.

Bead Setting

In bead setting, stones are placed in holes that have been drilled out on the surface of a jewelry item. This method was very common in the 20th century.

Bead Tip

Bead tip is a concave metal piece, attached to a metal loop, used to add thread to a clasp. It is used between the clasp and the beading thread to hide the beading thread knot which is covered inside the concave piece.

Bearded girdle

Small or tiny, numerous, hair like fractures / cracks around the girdle extending into the stone.

Belcher Setting

A ring mounting in which the claws for the setting are formed from the shank of the ring. This setting style is commonly used in men rings.

Belly Ring

A type of body jewelry worn in or on the belly button.


The name beryl comes from ancient Greek word ‘beryllos’ which means precious blue-green color. This stone is available in a variety of colors including green, yellow, greenish-yellow, blue to blue-green, red, colorless and pink.

Betrothal Ring

A plain ring, without any stone, that is usually presented by a man to his fiancée, which shows his intention to marry her. This ring was mainly used in ancient Rome and other old cultures.


A facet on the Crown, or slopping surface just above the girdle of the Diamond.

Bezel Facets

On a round brilliant-cut diamond, these eight large, four-sided facets on the crown where the upper points join the table and the lower points join the girdle.

Bezel Setting

In this style of setting, a metal rim gently holds a stone in place by the girdle. The bezel setting guards the stone from any damages and yet allows light to enter which creates brilliance and sparkle.


A birthstone is nothing but a gemstone only, which is associated with the date of one’s birth and the wearing of such birthstone is considered to bring good luck and health. Certain gemstones are believed to have Supernatural powers and their relationship with planets. Many cultures originally assigned a specific gemstone to signify birth during each sign of the zodiac but over the time this tradition has been shifted from the zodiac to calendar months. Following birthstones are assigned for every calendar month. January – Garnet, February – Amethyst, March – Aquamarine, April – Diamond, May – Emerald, June – Pearl / Alexandrite / Moonstone, July – Ruby, August – Peridot / Sardonyx, September – Sapphire, October – Opal / Pink Tourmaline, November – Citrine / Yellow Topaz, December – Turquoise / Tanzanite / Zircon / Blue Topaz.

Black Diamond

A diamond with very dark color like dark gray, very dark green or truly black is referred in the trade as ‘black diamond’.


An external mark or surface imperfection on a diamond or gemstone. For example, a nick, abrasion, knot, scratch, minor crack or fissure (cavity), or a poor polish. A natural or an extra facet is also considered a blemish.


Blending is a process of smoothing rough areas of a metal piece to provide same plane or roundness and/or same surface finish.

Bloomed Gold

This term is used for gold jewelry that has been engrossed in an acid bath to give slightly matte texture.

Blue Diamond

A diamond with blue color is very rare and valuable although fluorescence diamond that shows a blue color in daylight is comparatively common.

Blue Topaz

The most common form of topaz, available in light brown or colorless when mined, but turns blue when exposed to light or heat.

Blue White

A term that has been used for near white diamonds with strong blue fluorescence.

Body Color

A diamond's actual color which can be observed when examined under a diffused light against a hue less background. The diffused light eliminates glaring reflections and dispersion, which would otherwise confuse the color determination.

Body Jewelry

Jewelry designed to be worn on or in any part of the body, typically refers to belly rings, nose studs, toe rings, tongue bars etc.

Book Chain

A style of chain with rectangular metal links where each link resembles a book.


Industrial grade diamonds generally used as drill points.

Bow Tie Effect

An optical effect due to a shadowy area visible in some fancy shapes, caused by light leaking out from the bottom of the Diamond. This effect can be minimized by careful cutting using best proportions and angles.

Box Chain

A type of chain, which has wide and square links where each link resembles a box.

Box Clasp

A box clasp is a type of fastener that contains a box with an opening, which is notched on the top of the box on the one end and a flat piece of metal, which is folded over to form a spring with a knob at the other end. The folded metal spring slips into the hole in the box with the knob sticking out through the notch in the top. The compressed spring holds the two ends in place and it is released by pressing the knob.


A bracelet is a type of jewelry, worn around the wrist. Bracelets contain gemstones, rocks, wood and other precious material and these are usually made of a variety of material, including metal, leather, cloth etc.

Bracelet Link

Bracelet link, a type of decorative jewelry finding, contains rings or loops on each end for linking with jump rings or connectors.


An alloy, made up of roughly half copper and half zinc, which has a nice yellow color.

Bridal Jewelry

Bridal jewelry is a general term for jewelry used in the wedding ceremony. It includes wedding rings, engagement rings, gifts for the bride or groom and gifts for the best man, maid of honor, ushers, bridesmaids and others taking part in the wedding ceremony.

Bridal set

Bridal set is a combination of an engagement ring and wedding ring that often match or compliment each other.


A special kind of paper, which is used to contain diamonds. This paper has several inner leaves of wrinkled bluish paper, which gives whiter look to the diamonds.


Brilliance describes the reflections of white light returned to the eye from a diamond or gemstone. Brilliance is produced primarily when light enters through the table, reaches the pavilion facets, and is then reflected back out through the table. The major factors that affect the amount of brilliancy in a gem are refractive index, proportions, polish and transparency.

Brilliant Cut

Brilliant Cut is the most common style of diamond or gemstone cutting and it is called a brilliant cut because it is designed to maximize brilliance. The standard round brilliant cut consists of a total of 58 facets which covers 1 table, 8 bezel facets, 8 star facets and 16 upper-girdle facets on the crown; and 8 pavilion facets, 16 lower-girdle facets, and usually a culet on the pavilion, or base. Brilliant cut stones normally come in round shape, but there are modified variants in other shapes also.


This term is used for a long teardrop shaped diamond or gemstone with rose cut facets, which sometimes is also drilled to be used as a pendant.


A person who is a specialist in introducing diamond buyers and sellers, and earns his commission on the value of deals done between diamond buyers and sellers.


Bronze is a very heavy and dense alloy consisting of 60% copper and 40% tin. It has a dull brown color and usually not preferred in jewelry due to its heaviness.


A brooch is an ornamental pin with a clasp to attach it to a garment or clothing. It is made often with precious metal along with gemstones.

Brown Diamond

A diamond with attractive or vivid brown color is rare and considered as fancy colored stone.


An inclusion which consists surface crumbling and normally accompanied by tiny, root like feathers. This inclusion is usually caused by external trauma such as a knock or a blow.

Brushed Finish

A brushed finish, also known as matte finish, is a texture applied to metal surface, which gives a dull and non-reflective finish. In this finish, a firm wire brush is used to give scratches or tiny grooves on the surface of the metal piece.


Bruting is the process of rounding a diamond to form its girdle. This is usually done by grinding one diamond against another on a rotating wheel. It is also known as girdling or rounding.


Any transparent inclusion which consists a tiny crystal or a grain of a different mineral.


Buffing is the process refers to the use of grease compound in combination with wheels to produce very smooth polished surface. It is the final step in professional finishing process.


Bullion is a precious metal usually gold in form of bars containing at least 99.5% purity.

Bullion coin

Bullion coin is a precious metal in the form of coin which trades at a price close to spot. In other words, it has little or no numismatic value.


Burn refers to changes in metallurgical properties and other physical characteristics such as discoloration of the metal piece due to excessive temperature during grinding.


Burnishing is a finishing with shiny surface usually resulting from using a dull or loaded grinding wheel or coated abrasive.


A facet may appear burnt or foggy, as a result of the cutter polishing the facet against the grain, or otherwise allowing the diamond to overheat causing the surface to oxydise.


Burr refers to a sharp edge of metal which remains on the surface of metal after cutting and reforming.

Buttercup Setting

It is a deep six-prong setting, with tall prongs, that resembles a buttercup flower. This setting is typically used for pendants and earrings.

Butterfly Chain

A chain composed of very tiny butterfly-shaped links with oval-shaped wings.

Butterfly Clutch

Butterfly clutch, also known as grip fastener, grips a grooved post. It has two wings that are squeezed to release it from the post.

Byzantine Chain

A type of chain, which has close-fitting links that create an intricate design.

Cable Chain

A chain composed of round linked rings of uniform size.

Cabochon Cut

A cabochon shaped gemstone resembles a dome as it comes in round shape with no facets. Generally onyx stone is cut in a cabochon shape.


A sealed packet with approved status containing diamonds bought in a trade deal, along with agreed payment terms. This word comes from French word ‘Cacher’ which means to seal.

Cairo Star

It is a variation on the modern round brilliant cut with 74 facets.


Cameo is a style of carving in which the design pattern is left and the surrounding surface is cut away leaving the design in relief. This is done to use the natural colors of the stone or shell to produce the different shadings of the carving.


A term used for diamonds with an intense yellow hue. The yellow color may appear with very slight greenish or slight orangey shade. Such diamonds are considered as Fancy and also called Fancy Yellow.


The term Carat is used as a standard unit of measurement of the weight of diamonds and most other gemstones. The word comes from the carob beans which are known for its consistent weight and was used in ancient times to measure diamonds and other gemstones. One carat (ct.) equals 200 milligrams, or 0.2 grams (1/5 of a gram), or 1/142 of an ounce. There are 100 points in a carat. If all other factors are equal, the more a diamond weighs, the more valuable it will be. It is sometimes incorrectly spelled ‘Karat’, but Karat refers only to the fineness of pure gold and gold alloys.


Diamonds are composed of carbon entirely, or almost entirely.

Carbon Spot

An inclusion or imperfection in a diamond that appears black, which is caused by the addition of the small particles of graphite or another mineral. In most cases, these black inclusions are not visible to the naked eye, and do not affect the brilliance of the diamond.


Carving refers to the cutting of decorative objects from a larger stone.


Casting is a widely used jewelry manufacturing process, in which a molten material such as metal, plastic or any other material is poured or forced into a hollow mold and allowed to solidify within the mold and then ejected or broken out to get a fabricated jewelry part.


Catch is a fastening device used to attach one end of a piece of jewelry to another by accepting and locking a top wire or a pin-stem.


A type of inclusion consisting of a large or deep opening in the diamond. It may be either internal or extending to the surface cause by cleavage or by a blow. Internal cavities may naturally contain gas, liquid, solid, a combination of two or three of these.


A large and famous diamond, unveiled recently in 1988. It was 599 carats in the rough, and cut to a gem weighing over 273 carats. It is second only to the Cullinan for its combination of size and quality.

Center Stone

The center stone is a main stone placed in central position in a piece of jewelry item with multiple stones. In a ring with one stone only, the center stone is also called the solitaire.

Centrifugal Casting

Centrifugal casting is the process of casting in which molds are attached to the outside edge of a hollow tube. Metal in liquid form is poured into the tube and it is spun at high-speed centrifugal force that pulls the molten metal into the molds.


A statement or document issued and certified by a gemological laboratory which consists the genuineness of a diamond or other gemstone along with the quality and other characteristics.


A chain is a flexible series of links, beads or rings, generally made of metal, connected or attached into one another. Chain is a widely used jewelry item and many necklaces and bracelets are made out of small chains. Some popular types of chain include: Book chain, Box chain, Butterfly chain, Byzantine chain, Cable chain, Curb chain, Figaro chain, Marina chain, Omega chain, Rope chain and Snake chain.

Chandelier Finding

It is a type of decorative finding, often used on an earring, with a drop or drops that hangs down from the earlobe and dangles like a chandelier.

Change of Color

Sometimes diamond changes color or appears with a different color in different types of light. This is caused by selective absorption and/or transmission of the specific type of light to which the stone is exposed.

Channel Setting

A setting style or method in channel form where no metal is displayed between stones and these stones are held in only by a slight rim which runs along the edges of the channel.


A charm is a decorative jewelry item, similar to pendant or trinket, usually worn on a bracelet, necklace or earring.

Charm Bracelet

A jewelry item which contains personal charms like pendants or lockets and worn around the wrist.

Charm Hanger

A charm hanger, also known as charm holder, is a jewelry finding which can be attached to a necklace or cord with a jump ring or bail. The bottom part of the holder can be opened to add single or multiple charms.

Charm Ring

It is a ring in which charm is also attached to its ring band.


A method of decorating or designing surface of the metal by etching or hammering using shaped punches and a chasing hammer.


The term chatoyant is used for those stones that have ability to display or reflect a cat's eye effect. This effect is caused by the precise occurrence of slight inclusions. A chatoyant gem exhibits a changeable silky luster as light is reflected within the thin, parallel, fibrous bands.


A curved break or absence of a tiny piece of a gemstone, caused by normal wear and tear, or by cutting.


A choker is a type of necklace usually made of pearls that fits tightly around the neck. It comes in 14 to 16 inches in length.

Chrome Plating

Chrome plating is a method of depositing a thin layer of chromium on other metal surface mainly for giving a bright and lustrous metallic surface, which is highly resistant to tarnish.


Chromium is a lustrous, hard brittle, steel-blue metallic element which is highly resistant to corrosion and tarnishing. It is generally used in the hardening of steel alloys and the production of stainless steels.

Cigar band

It is a very wide band-style ring.


Citrine is a verity of mineral Quartz and available in colors like light yellow, lemon yellow, amber-brown and brilliant orange. This radiant gemstone gets its name from the French word ‘Citrin’, meaning ‘Yellow’. Citrine is known as a tough gemstone with 7 points on Mohs hardness scale and with good durability. This gemstone is mainly found in South America, Brazil, Madagascar, Argentina, Russia, Scotland and Spain.

Claddagh Ring

Claddagh ring is firstly crafted by Master Goldsmith Richard Joyce in 1689, and it is named after the fishing village Claddagh, where he lived at the time of his craftsmanship. This ring has two hands clasping a heart, symbolizing love and surmounted by a crown, symbolizing loyalty. This ring is traditionally used to indicate the heart of the wearer is yet unoccupied.


Clamp, also known as cramp, is a metal prong or claw used for gemstone settings.


Clarity is one of the four value factors of a diamond or other gemstones which describes the absence or presence of flaws inside or on the surface of a stone. Diamonds and other gemstones are graded on a scale from Flawless (no inclusions or blemishes visible under 10x magnification) to Included (eye visible inclusions or blemishes). If other factors are equal, flawless stones are most valuable.

Clarity Enhancement

A process which is used to improve the apparent clarity of a diamond usually by filling fissures or fractures with a transparent substance like glass. Also known as ‘Fracture Filled’.


A clasp is a fastener, such as a hook or buckle, which is used to hold two or more jewelry objects or parts together. It usually contains a hook or buckle on one piece and a slot to hold that hook or buckle on the other piece. Clasps are mainly used in bracelets, necklaces, watchstrap etc. Some of the popular clasps include: Barrel clasp, Bead clasp, Box clasp, Hidden Screw clasp, Lobster Claw clasp, Safety clasp, Screw clasp, Spring Ring clasp and Toggle clasp.

Class Ring

A class ring, also known as graduate ring, is a ring worn by students and alumni in commemoration of their graduation. This ring generally contains a gemstone featuring one of the school’s colors along with engraved name of school and the year of graduation.


Claw is a style of setting used to hold gemstones in place. It is also known as collet and consists of a ‘Bezel’ and ‘Prong’.


A word used by some jewelers unofficially or informally which means flawless, or at least internal flawless.

Cleaning (Stones)

Cleaning of a diamond or a gemstone is essential to bring or maintain its shine and brilliance. At the mines, various methods are used to clean rough stones like boiling in acid etc. For domestic cleaning of diamonds and other gemstones, warm soapy water works well.

Cleaning (Casting)

Cleaning of metal casting refers to all activities that are performed to remove sand, scale and / or excess metal from the casting.


The tendency of crystalline minerals to break in one or more definite directions, producing more or less smooth surfaces. A cleavage may be caused by inherent internal strain or by a sharp blow. Cleavage is one of the two methods used by stone cutters to split gemstones in preparation for the cutting process. The other method is sawing.


Clip is a fastening device used to hold a piece of jewelry on its place. Generally clip is used in non-pierced earrings where its two pieces are closed around the earlobe, using mechanical pressure to hold the earring in place.

Closed Culet

A culet on a diamond which consist a point rather than a facet. That point is too small to be resolved with the unaided eye and can be seen only under 10X magnification.

Closed Setting

Closed setting is a style of setting in which back of the diamond or gemstone is not exposed and usually stone’s back is covered by metal.


A group of a number of extremely tiny white inclusions which gives a ‘cloudy’ or ‘milky’ appearance under 10X magnification. These clouds cannot be seen with the naked eye and generally does not significantly impact a gemstone's clarity grade.


This term is used for diamond ring or any other jewelry containing a number of diamonds. Cluster is also used for a number of kimberlite pipes occurring in close proximity.

Cluster Ring

A cluster ring is a ring that contains a central gemstone, which is surrounded by a number of smaller stones.

Cluster Setting

In this setting, many small stones are mounted together in a group around a larger sized central stone. Generally cluster setting exhibits flower shaped designs in a multi layered circular form, which is preferred by women in their rings.

Coated Diamond

A diamond colored by a surface coating which masks the diamond’s true body color. Coating may be used extensively to entire pavilion or limited to one or two pavilion facets or a spot on the girdle.

Coin Silver

A mixture of 90% pure silver and 10% metal alloy is known as Coin Silver. A process of melting down coins done in the 19th century, and mostly discarded today.


Collar necklace worn tightly around the neck and usually consist of multiple strands with an average length of 12 to 13 inches.


Collet is a style of setting used to hold gemstones in place. It is also known as claw and consists of a ‘Bezel’ and ‘Prong’.


Color is one of the four value factors of a diamond. Diamonds are ranked on a color scale from ‘D’ (colorless) to ‘Z’ (noticeable tint of color, typically yellow or brown). Diamonds with saturation greater than ‘Z’ color are considered Fancy Colored Diamonds such as blue, pink, purple, red etc. and are graded on a separate scale. Color is measured by tone and hue in a gemstone.

Color Change

Few gemstones distinctly change their color when viewed under two different light sources. This feature is commonly found in Alexandrite, Sapphire and Color Change Garnet.

Color Enhancement

Color enhancement is the improvement process of a diamond's or a gemstone's color mainly by irradiation and HPHT (High Pressure, High Temperature). Sometimes color coating is also used to enhance the stone’s color which is not considered as best enhancement way.

Color Grading

A system of grading diamond colors based on their colorlessness (for other than fancy diamonds) or their spectral hue, depth of color or purity of color (for fancy color diamonds) or their hue or tone (for other gemstones).

Colored Gold

Colored gold term is used when gold is mixed or alloyed with other metals, such as silver, copper, zinc, nickel, platinum, palladium etc to create various color hues like white, pink/ rose, green and the seldom found blue, purple and black.


Colorless diamonds are white or transparent diamonds and promoted as the best, but only because other attractive colors are extremely rare.


Comex is one of the world's major commodities futures exchanges where gold and silver are traded. It is a division of the New York Mercantile Exchange based at New York.

Comfort Disc

Comfort disc is a plastic disc that fits over the post of a pierced earring to provide greater comfort to the wearer.

Comfort Fit Ring

A ring that provides comfort to its wearer as it is curved from the inside of the shank.


This term is used for medium to low quality diamonds and opposite to fine gem quality.

Commercial White

Commercial White is a dealers’ term for ‘off-white’ diamonds.


Sometimes gems laboratories perform their grading by comparing one stone with another stone of known quality. This comparison is useful to consumers who are not well aware of diamond quality factors.

Compass Ring

A compass ring is a ring that rotates and can be used to determine compass direction based on the position of the sun and the time of day.

Composite Gemstone

It refers to a gemstone which is assembled from several pieces, often used to imitate a gem.


Conductivity is the ability of a mineral to transmit heat, electricity or sound.


Coolant is a metalworking fluid used in grinding process to prevent a metal piece from burning as well as to lubricate for the process.


Copper is a reddish-brown non-ferrous metal, which is usually considered as a base metal or alloyed with other precious metals. It is fairly soft metal with excellent conductivity of heat and electricity as well as it is very malleable and ductile. Other than jewelry, it is widely used for electrical wiring and water piping. The chemical symbol for copper is Cu.


Corundum is a hard mineral that exists in the form of colored crystals, such as Rubies and Sapphires.


A description of synthetic diamonds opposite to natural ones.

Critical Angle

Critical angle is the largest angle measured from the normal angle from which light can escape, is an optically dense substance, and the smallest angle to the normal angle at which light is totally reflected within the dense substance.


The upper portion of a cut diamond or gemstone above the girdle which consists of a large flat area on top known as table, and several facets below it.

Crown Angle

The angle between the girdle and stone's bezel / concentric facets is known as crown angle. This gentle slope of the facets that surround the table helps to create the dispersion or fire in a stone. White light enters from the crown angles and brakes up into its spectral hues which ultimately enhance the brilliance of a stone.

Crown Height

The height or depth of the crown of a stone, above the girdle.


This term is used for a mineral structure in which crystals are very small and due to that they are not even distinguishable through a microscope.


A crystal is solid material that has a definite internal atomic structure. Its atomic stricture produces a characteristic external shape as well as physical and optical properties.

Crystal Structure

Crystals are divided in to seven groups on the basis of specific set of angular, geometrical and symmetrical specifications. All crystalline gems can be classified in one of seven groups based on the above specifications. These groups are cubic, tetragonal, hexagonal, trigonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic and triclinic.


The chemical symbol for copper.


A cube is a rough diamond with approximately cubic shape. Gem-quality cube-shaped diamond crystals are very rare in nature and considered as collector’s items.

Cuff Bracelet

Cuff is a wide or narrow C shaped band that comes in a solid form and fits over the wrist.

Cuff link

A cufflink is an attractive fastener or clasp, to fasten the two sides of the cuff on a shirt, worn by men and women both. Cufflinks are used to link cuffs that have buttonholes on both the sides.


The smallest facet, at the bottom of most round or brilliant cut stones, is known as culet. Its purpose is to protect the tip of the pavilion from being chipped or damaged. Most modern shapes have either no culet at all, or a small or very small culet.

Cullinan, Cullinan I, Cullinan II

The Cullinan was the largest Diamond Crystal ever found with weight of 3,106 carats in the rough and was cut into 9 major stones and 96 smaller stones. Out of these 9 major stones, Cullinan I is the largest stone with 530.20 carats and Cullinan II is the second largest stone with 317.40 carats. Both of these stones are now part of British Crown Jewels.

Cultured Pearl

A pearl cultivated by an artificial process that imitates the organic process by which a natural pearl is created. An irritant such as a bead, grain of sand, or piece of mantle tissue is inserted manually into the body of a mollusk, and becomes the nucleus of a pearl once that mollusk secretes nacre to cover the irritation.


A shape of gemstone, which ranges from square to rectangular and it has rounded corners and larger facets to increase its brilliance. Cushion Cut stones are also known as "pillow cut" stones.


Cut refers to the geometric proportions and finish of a stone. It is one of the most important factors in determining diamond's or gemstone’s sparkle and brilliance. The stone should be symmetrical in all dimensions so that it will appear balanced, and so that its facets will reflect light evenly, which will provide good brilliance to stone. It is the only man-made contribution to a stone's beauty and value.


The person who cuts and polishes rough diamonds & gemstones and convert them into finished stones.


The process of cutting, grinding or polishing rough diamonds & gemstones and convert them into finished stones.


CZ denotes cubic zirconium, a widely used simulant, an imitation for a natural gemstone including diamond. But CZ is easily detectable by it’s 80% higher weight than a normal stone of the same proportions or by thermal conductivity testing.

Dangle Earring

A dangle earring, which is available in various lengths from a centimeter or two to up to shoulders, is designed to flow from the bottom of the earlobes. It is generally attached to the ear by the use of thin wire, which goes through the earlobe and connects to it in a small hook at the back.


It is a method of removing burrs from the metal piece by using various hand and automated processes. Coated abrasives, non-woven products and stones are typically used for deburring.

Decorative Jewelry Findings

Decorative jewelry findings are used in a piece of jewelry that provides beauty and good looks to that piece of jewelry. These are primarily included in a piece of jewelry to enhance the beauty and do not serve any mechanical function. Decorative jewelry findings include charms, pendants, Festoons, Filigrees etc.


This usually means a diamond or a gemstone which has been cut too deep. This deep cut maximizes weight but sacrifices brilliance.

Demi Parure

A jewelry set of matching pieces, usually containing a necklace, pin, bracelet or earring.


The density of a substance depends on both its mass and its volume. For example, lead is denser than feathers, so 1 tonne of lead will have a lesser volume than 1 tonne of feathers.


The height of a diamond or gemstone from the table to the culet which is measured in millimeters.

Depth Percentage

The depth percentage, which expresses how deep the stone is in comparison to how wide it is. In other words, the depth of the stone is divided by the average width. This depth percentage of a stone is important to its brilliance and value. The pavilion should be deep enough to allow light to bounce around inside the stone and be reflecting out to the eye at the proper angle.


Detection is the ability to identify diamond imitations, synthetics and treatments.


The width of the diamond or gemstone, as measured across the widest part of the girdle.


The word "diamond" comes from the Greek word “Adamas”, meaning "Unconquerable". Diamond is composed of carbon that crystallizes in the “cubic,” or “isometric,” crystal system. It is the hardest known substance in the world (10 on Mohs’ scale). The Diamond is uniquely resistant to damage by heat or scratching, and can be cut or polished only by another diamond.It occurs in colors ranging from colorless to yellow, brown, orange, green, blue, and violet.

Diamond Cutter

The person who cuts and polishes rough diamonds and convert them into finished diamonds.

Diamond Cutting

The process of cutting, grinding or polishing rough diamonds and convert them into finished diamonds.

Diamond Gauge

An instrument that is used to measure a diamond's length, width and depth in millimeters.

Diamond Saw

A saw used for dividing or separating diamonds.


This term refers to a gemstone that displays a different color or shade, which is other than the original gemstone’s color, when viewed from different directions or angles.


An engraved metal object, usually of a hard metal such as steel, bronze or brass, used to strike or stamp the design on another metal object.

Die Struck

Die struck is a process of reproducing an object by pressing or striking a piece of metal between a pair of dies. This pair consists male and female patterns to form highly detailed impressions on that metal piece.

Dinner ring

Dinner ring is a large oversized ring, set with precious or semiprecious stones. This ring is also known as cocktail ring.


Hardness is directional in diamonds and it is important for cutting. The optimal direction of cutting and polishing depends on the optical axes of diamonds.


Dispersion is the ability of a diamond or other gemstone, to separate white light into the colors of the spectrum. Diamond has the highest dispersion (.044) of any natural, colorless gem.

Double Refraction

This term is used when each ray of light is split in two as it enters in a non-cubic mineral.


Doublet is a composite stone which is made of two components, usually cemented or glued together with a clear adhesive.

Draw, Draw Color

A diamond which is not pure white (colorless) is often said to draw color.

Drill Bit

Due to diamond’s hardness, it is often used in high quality or high performance drill bits.

Drill, Drilling

Now laser is used to drill a diamond neatly for removing inclusions as well as drilling could also be done to create a diamond bead.

Drop Cut

A drop cut or briolette is a pear-shaped cut gemstone with triangular facets on top. This type of stone makes a nice pendant.

Drop Earring

A type of earring which hangs below the earlobe. It is also known as Dangle Earring or Chandalier Earring.


Durability describes a stone’s resistance power against scratches and cracks due to wear. The durability of a diamond or gemstone depends on its hardness, toughness and stability.


Very tiny rough diamonds and generally used as abrasives. It is also known as diamond powder.


Dwt is used as a symbol for ‘pennyweight’ that is 1/20th of a troy ounce or approx 1.555 grams.

Ear Cuff

Ear cuff is a wide decorative ring with a gap designed to be pinched onto the ear without need for piercing. It can be pinched onto any part of the ear, not just the earlobe.

Ear Nut

An ear nut is a type of clutch contains a hole through which an earring post is attached to secure the earring to the earlobe. The friction version has two curved wings that grasp a grooved post.

Ear Threads

Ear thread is a small earring element that contains a thin pin and a small chain, which is threaded through holes in the ears. They usually have a small cup or ball or loop on the opposite end of the pin. Beads can be included to the chains before threading or can be fastened to the cup or loop on the end.


A jewelry item that is worn on the ear, often in both the ears, is known as earring. It can be attached in a variety of ways, including with clips or screw backs that grip the ear lobe or with wires that pass through it. Earrings are mainly worn by women but sometimes men also prefer it to wear especially on one ear. There are countless styles and types of earrings available for pierced as well as non-pierced ears.

Earring back

Earring back is a bead or disk that fits over an earring post and holds the earring securely in place, like a catch.

Earring Jacket

A separate fashionable piece of jewelry that can be added to an earring by the wearer to create exceptional looks.


This term is generally used for jewelry items that have been coated with gold through the process of electroplating.


Electroplating is the process where inexpensive metals are frequently electroplated or coated with a thin layer of more expensive metals like gold (gold plating), silver (silver plating), rhodium (rhodium plating), copper (electro coppering) etc. In this process, an electric current is flown to coat an electrically conductive metal object with a relatively thin layer of precious metal.


Emerald, a verity of mineral Beryl, is one of the most fascinating and beautiful gemstones available in various shades of green color. The name of this remarkable gemstone comes from Greek ‘Smaragdos’, meaning ‘Green Stone’. Deep green is the most desired color in emeralds. Its hardness makes it very tough and durable which comes in between 7.5 to 8 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Columbia, Brazil, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Afghanistan and USA. Flawless emeralds are very uncommon, and are noted for their great value, sometimes even more than diamonds.

Emerald Cut

Emerald Cut diamond or gemstone is a square or rectangular shape stone with cut corners. This is also known as Step Cut because it has rows of facets, usually 48 to 50, that resemble a staircase. Due to its larger, more open table, this shape highlights the clarity of a stone but with fewer facets, this shape brings less brilliance than the other shapes.


Enamel is a powdered colored glass fused onto the surface of the piece of jewelry. It is a soft material and can be easily cracked or damaged. This should not be used on jewelry pieces, which are exposed to daily wear.

Engagement Ring

An engagement ring is a ring worn by a woman, which indicates her engagement to be married. A man presents this ring to a woman who accepts his marriage proposal.


Engraving is a method of surface decoration in which a design is etched or engraved with a sharp tool.

Enhance, Enhanced, Enhancement

Enhance or enhancement is the process to improve a diamond's or a gemstone's color or clarity by using various methods.


It is very faintly carved decoration scratched onto the surface of a metal piece.

Eternity Ring

A ring generally contains a continuous line of gemstone, symbolizing eternity with a partner.

European Cut

A European version of ‘ideal’ cut which was used and preferred in Europe although it was never adopted as a common form of cutting. In this cut, stone‘s proportions were worked out mathematically for light falling perpendicularly on the crown.

European Wire

A long curved wire which passes through a pierced earlobe and clasps shut.

Extender Chain

A chain which may be attached to another chain in order to extend the length.

Extra Facet

An additional facet placed onto a diamond or onto a gemstone, usually to remove a ‘natural’ or small surface blemish. This extra facet is not required by the cutting style and symmetry.


Eye is a loop or ring, made of wire or any other material, used as a connector for necklaces, pendants, etc.

Eye Clean

A term used in the jewelry industry to describe a diamond or a gemstone with no blemishes or inclusions that are visible to the unaided eye.


A term used for flat or plane surface that make up the exterior form of a crystal.


A plane, polished surface on a diamond or on a gemstone which allows light to enter in a stone and reflect off through different angles.

Faceted Girdle

A girdle of a stone that is lapped and polished for maximum surface reflection and has many flat planes around the circumference of the stone.


Faceting is the process of placing facets on a stone. The shape and number of the facets give the stone its style of cut.

Faith Ring

A faith ring, also known as fede ring, has only two clasped hands, symbolizing faith and trust.

Fancy Cut,
Fancy Shape

Any shape of a diamond or a gemstone other than the round brilliant shape is known as fancy cut or fancy shape. It includes marquise, emerald cut, heart shape, pear shape, etc.

Fancy Diamond

Fancy Diamond is a Diamond with strong natural body color other than light yellow or light brown. Colored or fancy diamonds are very rare and valuable and available in various colors like blue, pink, purple, red etc.


Feathers are small fractures in a stone caused by the tremendous stress that the stone suffered while it was growing underground. Under magnification, these small fractures appear very much like a feather.

Fede rings

A fede ring, also known as faith ring, has only two clasped hands, symbolizing faith and trust.


Ferrule is a metal band or cap that is fitted to the end of wire, thread, cord or any other material to prevent fraying or to add decoration.


Festoon is a type of pendant that contains rings on both sides through which a chain or string can be attached. It generally functions as the centerpiece of a necklace.


A fibula, also known as brooch, is an ornamental pin with a clasp to attach it to a garment or clothing. It is made often with precious metal but sometimes with bronze or other material too along with gemstones.

Figaro Chain

Instead of uniform links, figaro chain features a distinct pattern of three (or five) equally sized links separated by one longer link.

Figure 8 safety catch

A type of safety catch in which a figure eight shaped hinged wire snaps over a pin. The wide end of the eight connects at the bottom to the hinge whereas the smaller end slips over the pin to hold the clasp closed.


Filigree, a type of decorative jewelry finding, is formed of bent wire that is soldered or stamped into delicate and complex designs similar to lace patterns.

Fill, Filled, Filling

This refers to the practice of filling open fissures in diamonds, usually with glass.


Jewelry findings are basically components, materials and elements such as clasps, pins, hooks, tabs etc that can be used in making or assembling a piece of jewelry.


Fineness refers to the purity of a precious metal. The purity of a precious metal measured in 1,000 parts of an alloy. For example, a gold bar, containing 995 parts gold and 5 parts of another metal alloy, is considered with .995 fineness.


The way surface of a piece is cleaned or polished or textured. Finish refers quality of polish and symmetry on a stone as well as polish or texture applied to the metal on an item of jewelry. Common metal finishes include florentine, high polish and matte or brushed.


Fire refers flashes of spectrum colors seen in a diamond or in a gemstone as the result of dispersion.


A stone with exceedingly shallow pavilion, which produces a glassy appearance and a noticeable dearth of brilliancy.


It is a fishhook shaped finding often used to make pierced earrings. The hook end passes through the pierced ear, while an ornament hangs from the other end. It is also known as French ear wire.


A crack or fracture or feather, which possibly reached to the surface of a stone.


A stone with a very thin crown and pavilion which gives a flat effect.


Flaw refers to any internal or external imperfection on a diamond or on a gemstone and usually includes feather, fissure, carbon spot, knot, etc.


Flawless is a term used for diamonds or other gemstones that are without any internal or external flaws when viewed by a trained eye under 10X magnification.

Florentine Finish

A Florentine finish is a crosshatched decorative technique engraved into the surface of a precious metal. It is usually applied by a hand tool and consists a series of parallel lines engraved in two directions perpendicular to each other. This finish reduces the reflectivity of metal and the lines are often coarser and more deeply incised than the brushed or matte finish methods.


An effect in many gemstones mainly in diamonds that makes them glows in ultraviolet rays or light. Stones can fluoresce in a number of colors mainly in blue and fluorescence ratings include none, faint, slight, medium, strong and very strong. Faint to medium fluorescence is rarely detected under most lighting conditions which include sunlight also whereas strong or very strong fluorescence may make a stone appear ‘milky’ or ‘oily’ in such lighting conditions. Fluorescence is not dangerous to the stone or to its wearer. It is a unique and fascinating quality that occurs naturally in a number of gems and minerals.


A small chain or ribbon attached to a pocket watch, often with an ornament or decorative seal attached to the end.


Foil is a paper like thin sheet of metal which is used to place behind a gemstone to intensify its brilliance.


A method of coating or placing silver, gold, or colored foil behind a gem in a closed setting to enhance its appearance as light is reflected by this. This is often done with rhinestones.

Foldover Clasp

A clasp with a box on one end and a V-shaped tongue on the other end, mainly used on a necklace or bracelet. The lid of the box opens to reveal a small hook and tongue slips over in it. Then the lid of the box is snapped closed to secure the tongue in place.


Heating a metal to a temperature where the metal becomes malleable (red hot) or deforming its shape by compression or exertion of force (by hammering or cold forging).

Four Cs

A phrase used to describe a diamond's value characteristics which cover the four well-known factors affecting the price of a diamond. All these factors start with the letter ‘C’: cut, color, clarity, and carat weight.

Foxtail Chain

It resembles the fullness of a foxtail which is made up of three rows of links. Foxtail chain is expertly designed by interweaving bent circles of metal together in a continuous pattern.


A breaking or chipping in a diamond or in a gemstone, which usually reached to its surface and that is not in the direction of a cleavage plane.

Fracture Filling

A diamond’s enhancement process in which cavity is filled in a diamond with an artificial substance like glass.

French Back

It is an earring back for non-pierced ears where the earring is tightened against the earlobe by means of a screw.

French wire

It is a fishhook shaped finding often used to make pierced earrings. The hook end passes through the pierced ear, while an ornament hangs from the other end.

Freshwater Pearl

A freshwater pearl is an irregular shaped pearl that was harvested from a freshwater mussel (a mollusk). Usually these pearls are shaped like an uneven grain of rice, and are less valuable than oyster pearls. Biwa and Tennessee are the varieties of freshwater pearls.

Full Cut Brilliant

A full cut brilliant is a diamond or a gemstone usually with total of 58 facets, consisting of 32 facets and a table above the girdle and 24 facets and a culet below the girdle.

Functional Jewelry Findings

Functional jewelry findings are used in making a piece of jewelry that serves to accomplish some sort of mechanical functions such as attaching, linking or joining. Functional jewelry findings include catches, pin backs, posts, screw backs etc.


Gallery is metal strips used to make settings for gemstones or used as a decorative design element in a piece of jewelry.


Garnet, which belongs to mineral quartz, is a family of stones having many varieties differing in color and in their constituents. This name is derived from its resemblance in color and shape to the seeds of the pomegranate. Garnet Stones are available in varieties named Grossularite, Pyrope, Almandine, Rhodalite, Andradite, Essonite, Tsavorite, Spessartite, Melanite, Allochroite, Ouvarovite and Demantoid. The most common color of Garnets range from light red to violet, but can also be white, green, yellow, brown and black except blue. Its hardness in between 7.5 to 8 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Burma, Sri Lanka, South Africa, China, USA, Tanzania, Madagascar, India and Australia.


Any device or instrument which is used to calculate the weight of diamonds, by measuring or estimating physical dimensions like diameter, depth, length.

Gemological Institute
of America (GIA)

Gemological Institute of America (GIA) was founded as non-profit organization in 1931 by Roger Shipley. GIA maintains the highest standards for grading diamonds and other precious gems and it has one of the world’s most-respected and well-regarded gemological laboratories. GIA has developed and standardize the diamond and gemstone grading system that is used by nearly all other gem labs.


A person with expertise in gemology is known as gemologist. There are many recognized courses available from various Gemological Institutes which offer study in gem identification, grading and pricing, as well as diamond grading and appraising.


A gemstone is a mineral or rock, which can be used in jewelry after cutting or faceting and polishing. Gemstones are diverse in their beauty and many gems are available in a stunning variety of colors. Most gemstones have little beauty in the rough state and they may look like ordinary rocks or pebbles in their rough form. After a skilled cutting and polishing of a gem, full color and luster can be seen. Gemstones are classified into two categories, precious and semi-precious, on the basis of their characteristics. Precious stones include diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires whereas semi precious stones are Alexandrite, Amethyst, Aquamarine, Citrine, Garnet, Iolite, Onyx, Opal, Pearl, Peridot, Tanzanite, Topaz, Tourmaline etc.


Geode is a cavity within a rock which is crystal line grows from inner surface to center in a gemstone. Usually geode found in Amethyst and Peridot stones.


A metal object usually decorated with a thin layer of gold, gold foil or gold leaf.


Girdle is the widest part or outer edge of a diamond or a gemstone and the dividing line between the crown and pavilion. The girdle can be rough (matt), faceted, polished or unpolished but a polished or faceted girdle doesn't improve a stone's grade. Most labs grade a girdle's thickness, not its appearance and the descriptions of girdle thickness range as follows: extremely thin; thin; medium; slightly thick; thick; extremely thick.

Girdle Facet

The 32 triangular facets that adjacent to the girdle on a brilliant cut or other stone and split into 16 upper (crown) girdle facets, and 16 lower (pavilion) girdle facets. Sometimes facets are placed directly on the girdle, in which case the diamond is usually said to have a ‘faceted girdle’.

Girdle Thickness

It is the measurement describing the percentage of the stone’s average girdle diameter. The girdle thickness ranges as follows: extremely thin; thin; medium; slightly thick; thick; extremely thick.


Girdling is the process of giving a circular shape to a diamond or a gemstone. In this process, a stone is held in a lathe, or in a cutting machine, and cut or shaped by another diamond or tool, called a sharp.


Gold is an extraordinary and rare precious metal, with an unmatched combination of chemical and physical properties. Gold is the most non-reactive of all metals and it does not oxidize under ordinary conditions. No other metal is as malleable as gold. Pure gold is very soft and pliable, and alloys of different other metals are combined with pure gold to enhance its durability and strength, as well as creating a blush in the gold’s appearance with different color tones. 24 karat is 100 % pure gold, and it is more expensive and less durable than gold that is alloyed with other metals.

Gold - 10 Karat (White Tone)

Gold which combines 10 parts of pure gold and 14 parts of other metal alloys and appears in white tone.  Normally white gold is created by combining pure gold with a copper, zinc and nickel (or palladium) alloy.

Gold - 10 Karat (Yellow Tone)

Gold which combines 10 parts of pure gold and 14 parts of other metal alloys and appears in natural yellow tone. By combining with copper and silver, yellow gold retains a rich yellow color while increasing its strength.

Gold - 14 Karat (White Tone)

Gold which combines 14 parts of pure gold and 10 parts of other metal alloys and appears in white tone.  As mentioned above, normally white gold is created by combining pure gold with a copper, zinc and nickel (or palladium) alloy.

Gold - 14 Karat (Yellow Tone)

Gold which combines 14 parts of pure gold and 10 parts of other metal alloys and appears in natural yellow tone. As mentioned above, by combining with copper and silver, yellow gold retains a rich yellow color while increasing its strength.

Gold - 18 Karat (White Tone)

Gold which combines 18 parts of pure gold and only 6 parts of other metal alloys and appears in white tone.  As mentioned above, normally white gold is created by combining pure gold with a copper, zinc and nickel (or palladium) alloy.

Gold - 18 Karat (Yellow Tone)

Gold which combines 18 parts of pure gold and only 6 parts of other metal alloys and appears in natural yellow tone. As mentioned above, by combining with copper and silver, yellow gold retains a rich yellow color while increasing its strength.

Gold Eagles

It is referred as modern gold bullion coin. American gold eagle contains 91.7% pure gold (22 karat) and for the remaining part silver and copper as alloy.

Gold Filled

Gold filled refers to a layer of at least 10-karat gold that has been permanently bonded by heat and pressure to the surface of the base metal, then rolled or drawn to a prescribed thickness. The karat gold must be at least 1/20 of the total weight. It is also known as gold overlay.

Gold Flashed

A gold coating in which thickness of layer is less than seven millionths of an inch. It is sometimes also called gold washed.

Gold Plated

Gold Plated refers to a thin layer of plating of 10-karat gold or better which has been bonded to a base metal. The karat gold content may be less than 1/20, but it must be properly identified by weight in terms of total metal content.

Gold Standard

A monetary system in which currency can be redeemed or converted for a fixed amount of gold. The government or bank must have enough gold in reserve to redeem all its circulating currency.

Gold Tone

In its pure form, gold has a metallic luster with deep yellow in color, but when it is mixed or alloyed with other metals, such as silver, copper, zinc, nickel, platinum, palladium, etc. then it creates various color tones like white, pink/ rose, green and the seldom found blue, purple and black. It is sometimes called gold color.

Golden finish

Jewelry that does not contain actual gold but finished in such a manner that it has the look of gold jewelry item.


A person, who is an expert for working with precious metal to create jewelry.


A recognized measure of an aspect of diamond’s or gemstone's quality, mainly clarity and color.


The process of evaluating a diamond or a gemstone, and allocating grades to it.

Grading Report

A grading report or certificate is a statement, issued by an independent Gemological Laboratory, that at the time of evaluation, the diamond or gemstone in question has been examined, measured, and scrutinized by experienced Graders, using various gemological instruments, and determined to contain the characteristics as stated in the Report or Certificate. The grading report should accurately describe the proportions, weight, color, clarity, symmetry, polish and possible fluorescence seen in the stone.


Diamond crystals have different strength bonds in different directions and these directions are known as grain. The term, grain is also an earliest known weight unit for gold in which one troy ounce contains 480 grains.

Grain Center

A small area of intense crystal structure distortion which usually associated with pinpoints.


Usually graining refers to internal irregular crystal growth which may appear milky like faint lines or streaks.


Gram is the basic unit of weight of the metric system and generally used to express the weight of jewelry items. One troy ounce contains 31.1035 grams.

Green Gold

Pure gold is mixed with silver, copper and zinc to get green gold. Although this color is not very popular but still it gives wearer an opportunity to look different.


Grinding is used to remove material from a work piece through machines and by using abrasive minerals.

Guard Ring

A tight ring worn above another ring to keep it from slipping off the finger.

Gypsy Setting

The gypsy setting is a recessed setting in which the stone is sunk into the metal and there are often engraved designs around the stone especially in star patterns. The gypsy setting is also known as the ‘star setting’.

Half-Bezel Setting

A setting type in which girdle of the stone is partially encircled on two sides rather than around the entire stone.

Half-Hoop design

An earring, bangle or bracelet which resembles a ring but does not form a complete circle.


A hallmark is an official mark (or a series of marks) stamped onto a precious metal that indicates the fineness of the metal and the manufacturer's mark. As well as sometimes hallmarks indicate the country and year of manufacturing. Although marks are not officially required in USA but usually they are carried by custom and practice.

Hammered Finish

A hammered finish is a texture applied to the surface of a metal piece with a hammer to give it a dimpled look. A hammered texture gives impression of a series of small depressions in the metal. This finish is varied from light to deep hammering texture and usually increases the size of the metal piece.

Hand Made

Hand made jewelry is created completely by hand and only some hand tools are used for this.


Diamond is the hardest known naturally occurring substance on Earth.


The hardness of a gemstone refers it's resistance to scratching on a smooth surface. Moh's scale of hardness, which scale from 1 (very soft) to 10 (very hard), is useful for comparing the relative hardness of different gem materials. Diamond is the hardest known substance on Earth and it is graded 10 on Mohs’ scale of hardness. Hardness is directional in most gemstones.


Head refers part of the setting that holds the center stone or solitaire in place.

Heart Cut

The Heart shaped diamond or gemstone is essentially a pear-shaped with a cleft at the top and which typically contains 59 facets. Due to the complexity of the shape, skilled cutting is necessary to maintain the stone’s brilliance. Generally people prefer a heart shape stone for sentimental purposes. This shape is mostly used in pendants, but also suitable for most jewelry items.

Heat Treatment

Heat treatment is the process in which heat is offered to a gemstone for the purpose of improving its color.

Herringbone Chain

It is a short flexible chain that lies flat around the neck.

Hidden box clasp

A box clasp that is hidden under the last link of chain so that when the chain is closed it looks uniform, except for the release lever.

Hidden Screw Clasp

A hidden screw clasp is similar to screw clasp where clasp is partially covered in the bead or pearl, giving the necklace a clasp less look when screwed together.

High Polish Finish

High polish finish is a super shiny and smooth polish applied to a metal surface that gives a highly reflective and mirror-like finish.


Hinge is an assembled unit of a joint, top wire and catch, which permits movement to a piece of jewelry.

Hoop Earring

A circular-shaped earring for pierced ears, which look similar to a ring, goes in a loop from the front to back of the earlobe. It is usually made of metal tubing and this hollow tubing is permanently attached to the wire at the front of the ear, which slips into the tube at the back. These earrings are available in many variations that include hoops with charms and with other jewelry items to be hung from the hoop.

Hope diamond

The Hope Diamond is the world's largest deep blue diamond. It is famous for its striking color and infamous for its history of bringing bad luck to its owners. This attractive stone is also having a history of stolen and recovered, sold and resold, cut and recut. It is now on display at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington.


Hue is an aspect of color such as pink, yellow, blue, green, etc. It is a primary factor in viewing and grading fancy colored diamonds and gemstones.

Hybrid Jewelry Findings

Hybrid jewelry findings serve the purposes of both mechanical findings as well as decorative findings. These findings are used in making a piece of jewelry to link or attach whereas due to their beauty and looks, these are considered as decorative also. Hybrid jewelry findings include bracelet links, bead caps, locket bails etc.

Ideal Cut

Theoretically perfect cutting proportions and facet angles, calculated mathematically to produce maximum brilliancy consistent with a high degree of fire in a round brilliant cut gemstone. Ideal cut is also known as American Cut.

Idiochromatic Gems

The colors in these idiochromatic gems come from elements that are an essential part of their chemical composition. These gems generally have only one color, or show a very narrow range of colors. Peridot is an idiochromatic gem, which is always green, due to one of its essential elements, iron.

IGI (International Gemological Institute)

IGI (International Gemological Institute) is an organization which offers a grading report for diamonds and other gemstones. IGI has laboratories located throughout the world, including New York, Antwerp, Mumbai, Bangkok and Tokyo.

Igneous Rocks

These are rocks that are formed from erupted volcanic lava or solidified magma.

Illusion Setting

An illusion setting contains a faceted metal plate that surrounds the girdle of a stone, thus making the stone appear larger.


Imitation diamonds or gemstones can be anything that resembles a natural stone but does not have the same physical characteristics or chemical composition. These items are usually much less expensive than the natural forms. Imitation stones are often made of glass or plastic and most can be detected easily by a jeweler.


An imperfect diamond or gemstone contains any external blemish or internal inclusion or flaw that are visible to the unaided eye or that have a serious effect on the stone’s durability. The diamond imperfection grade at the low end of the ‘flawless-to-imperfect’ scale.

Included Crystal

A diamond which contains a mineral crystal is known as included crystal.


An internal imperfection or characteristic which reduces the clarity or brilliance of a diamond or gemstone. Common stone inclusions are feathers, crystals, fractures, needles, graining, pinpoints and cavities.

Industrial Diamonds

Low grade or very small diamonds which are not perfect for jewelry use and are generally used in various industrial applications.


An ingot is a metal cast into the shape of a bar or block.


This term refers to a decorative feature of an item of jewelry. An inlay is a piece of material (usually stone or glass) that is partially embedded in another material (usually metal) and these two materials make a level surface.


Intaglio is a style of carving in which the design is carved into the surface of an engraved stone so that the rim shows the highest portion.

Internal Graining

A diamond or a gemstone which contains internal irregular crystal growth is known as internal graining. It may appear milky like faint lines or streaks.

Internally Flawless (IF)

A clarity grade which refers no inclusions and only insignificant surface blemishes.

Invisible Set

In this setting, stones are positioned in such a manner so that metal is not visible from in-between stones that ultimately show appearance of uninterrupted and continuous surface. Usually invisible setting is best suited with square princess, emerald, baguette, and trillion cut diamonds and gemstones because the straight edges can be positioned very close to each other without leaving any space in-between.


An iridescent material displays many lustrous, changing colors caused by the reflection of light due to inclusions in gemstones.


Iridium is a metal of the platinum family which often alloyed with platinum to improve workability. Jewelry pieces marked ‘80% Plat. 20% Irid’ would indicate that the alloy is containing 80 % platinum and 20% iridium.


Iron is a very common metallic element and mainly used to make steel. It usually appears dark brown in impure form whereas silvery-white in pure form. Pure iron is quite soft and it is oxidized (rusted) easily by moisture. The chemical symbol for iron is Fe.

Irradiated diamond

A diamond which has been exposed to radiation usually to improve its color.

J Hoop Earrings

A half hoop earring that resembles the English language letter ‘J’ and does not completely encircle the earlobe.


Jade is a semiprecious stone, which is often used to describe jadeite and nephrite both as these two are similar in appearance and use. It is available in varieties of shades like green, light purple, yellow, pink, creamy white etc. Although this stone founds at many places but the best quality jade comes from Myanmar (formerly Burma). Jade is quite hard stone with 6.5 to 7 on the Mohs scale and used in many jewelry items.


Jewelry is a personal ornament, such as a ring, bracelet, necklace or any other item made from jewels, precious metals or any other material. The word jewelry is derived from the Latin word ‘Jocale’ means plaything. In present scenario the word Jewelry is used to describe any piece of precious metal or gemstone used to adorn oneself.

Jewelry Findings

Jewelry findings are basically components, materials and elements like clasps, pins, hooks, tabs etc that can be used in making or assembling a piece of jewelry.

Jump Ring

Jump ring is a round or oval shaped plain wire ring available in various sizes and used for attaching jewelry parts. Normally, the ends of the wire are bent together instead of soldering.

Karat, Karat Weight

Karat is the American spelling of carat which is now only used for gold or gold alloys weight whereas English spelling carat is used in respect of weight of diamonds or other gemstones. Karat is always based on pure 24 karat gold and if a jewelry item contains 18 karat gold that means it has eighteen parts pure gold and six parts other metal alloys. Karat is also used in its abbreviated 'kt' form.

Kimberlite Rock

The yellow or blue rock which forms diamond pipes and in which most diamonds are found.


An included diamond crystal which reaches to the surface of a polished diamond. This knot is difficult to cut or polish because of twinning, negative crystal growth, or similar feature.

Kohinoor, Koh-i-noor

The name of Koh-i-noor means "Mountain of Light". It is an Oval Shaped Brilliant cut diamond with 108.93 carat weight. This diamond was presented to Queen Victoria in 1850 to mark the 250th anniversary of the founding of the East India Company. It is now on display with the British Crown Jewels in the Tower of London.


Lapidary is a skilled craftsman who cuts and polishes diamonds and gemstones to their finished state.

Laser Drill Hole

A tiny tube which is created in a diamond by laser drilling to treat a diamond. It is one of the few man-made inclusions that can occur inside a diamond. The surface opening may resemble a pit, while the tube usually looks needle like.

Laser Drilling

A diamond enhancement technique by a laser which is used to drill a diamond to remove inclusions. BY using this laser drilling technique, clarity grade of a diamond can be raised.


Lead is a dense, soft metal with a dull blue-grey appearance. It has a low melting point and due to this it is generally used in soldering. The chemical symbol for lead is Pb.

Length-to-width ratio

A comparison of the length and width of the girdle outline on fancy shaped stones. It is used to analyze the outline of fancy shapes only and it is never applied to round shaped stones. The ratio is found by dividing the length of the stone by the width where stone width is always stated as 1. This ratio is simply a matter of personal aesthetic preferences and there is no defined ideal ratio for any of the fancy shaped stones.

Lever back

An earring for a pierced ear with a hook-shaped ear wire that goes through the earlobe. It is secured by a hinged lever attached to the back of the piece.

Light Brown

A diamond which is not intense enough to be considered as fancy brown and often appear quite white.

Light Yellow

A diamond with light yellow tint is considered as fancy yellow.


A loop or any other object which is linked together in a series to make a chain.

Lobster Claw Clasp

A lobster claw clasp is a jewelry fastener that resembles the claw of a lobster. A tiny spring keeps the arm of this clasp closed, which can be opened by a lever on its side.


A locket is a small box or hinged case which can be opened and closed and generally contains a small photograph or other small item. These lockets are usually attached to chains and worn around the neck. Lockets are often made of precious metals and available in various shapes like heart, oval, circle etc.

Loose diamond

Loose diamond is an unmounted polished diamond.

Lost Wax Casting

This is one of the most commonly used casting techniques. Under this casting method, an object is made of wax and coated in clay. When the clay is fired, the wax melts and is drained away or evaporates leaving an exact impression of the object in the hardened clay, which is then filled with molten metal.


Loupe is a French word for magnifying glass. It is a small magnifying lens used to examine diamonds and gemstones. 10X magnification is the standard.

Lower Girdle Facet

A diamond facet on the pavilion of a round brilliant cut just below the girdle.


The quality of reflected and refracted light from the surface of a diamond or gemstone or pearl or metal. Luster is mainly dependent on stone's surface (polish) and the reflective index of the mineral. Luster can be described as: adamantine, pearly, greasy, metallic, silky, resinous, vitreous, earthy (also known as dull) and waxy.

Main Facets

The large crown and pavilion facets of a brilliant-cut diamond whereas on step-cut stone, the center row of facets on the pavilion.


Make is a trade term refers to the proportions, symmetry and polish of a diamond or a gemstone.


Malleability is the physical property of metal that allows it to be hammered, rolled, compressed and stretched. Gold is the most malleable of all metals.

Marina chain

Marina chain is made of small round diamond cut links that are set very close.

Mariner link

Mariner chain is made of flat oval links with a strip of metal down the middle of each link. It is also known as anchor link chain.

Marquise Cut

The Marquise Cut is a traditional shape having elongated ends at both edges. The pointed ends make this shape the most fragile and the most expensive of brilliant style cuts. It has a total of 56 facets and construction of facet requires a lot of experience and delicacy of the sharp points demands utmost precaution. Now-a-days this shape is very popular for engagement rings.

Matinee Length

Matinee style offers one of the most popular necklace lengths with 20 to 24 inches and it comes in between princess and opera length. Matinee necklaces look stunning on casual or business attire.


Matrix is a rock in which gemstones are found. It is also referred as the host rock or parent rock.

Matte Finish

A matte finish, also known as a brushed finish, is a texture applied to metal surface, which gives a dull and non-reflective finish. Matte finish is achieved either by a chemical process or by using an abrasive material to scratch the top layers of the piece.


This term is used to describe small brilliant-cut diamonds under .20 carat. Generally, these small diamonds or gemstones are used to embellish mountings, setting or larger stones.

Memory Wire

Memory wire is a tough, stiff wire that retains its shape. It does not require the use of a clasp and is often used for necklaces and bracelets.


Metal is a solid mineral element that usually has a shiny surface and generally a good conductor of heat and electricity, and can be melted or fused, hammered into thin sheets, or drawn into wires. Common metals include bronze, copper and iron whereas gold, platinum and silver are considered as precious metals and used for making jewelry.

Metal Etching

A technique of creating a design on metal using acid. Some parts of the metal are covered and protected from the action of the acid, while the remaining exposed parts are eaten away by the acid to form a design.

Metal Type

The type of metal that is used to create jewelry.

Metamorphic Rock

These are rocks that have been changed by heat and/or pressure to form new rocks consisting of new minerals.


It is a decorative technique in which a beaded design is impressed into the metal by using a special engraver’s tool.


The unit of measurement, which is used to determine a pearl and gem's diameter, equal to about 0.04 inch.


A place where diamonds and other gemstones are extracted from the ground, by using various methods of mining like open cast, deep pit etc.


Mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic element of the Earth with a consistent atomic structure and chemical composition.

Mirror Finish

A highly reflective and mirror like finished surface with no visible abrasion pattern.

Mixed Cut

A mixed cut refers to a cut in which the style of the facets above and below the girdle are different. A standard mixed cut is brilliant cut above and step cut below.


The abbreviation for millimeter.

Modern Brilliant Cut

It is a round brilliant cut unless otherwise stated normally with 58 facets including the culet and polished using relatively modern theory. This shape is considered as ideal for a diamond because it maximizes a stone's sparkle and brilliance.

Modified Brilliant Cut

A cut in a shape or style other than round brilliant cut, such as oval, pear, marquise, heart, princess, radiant, or baguette.

Mohs scale

It is a ten point scale to find mineral hardness which is devised by Friedrich Mohs, a German mineralogist, in the 19th century. The diamond is the hardest of all known natural substances and it scores 10 on Mohs Scale.


Transparent silicon carbide, which is a rare crystal in nature, marketed as a diamond stimulant. It is named after Henri Moissan, famous French scientist. Its double refraction is one of the few differences with a diamond whereas thermal conductivity is almost equal.


Mold is the hollow form into which molten metal is poured to solidify and then ejected or broken out to get a fabricated jewelry part. It is made from a refractory material either for temporary use or for permanent use.


Diamonds are composed of large molecules or particles of carbon atoms with strong bonds in all planes.

Mother of Pearl

The iridescent lining of an oyster shell, often used as a nucleus for a cultured pearl.

Mother's Ring

A ring worn by a mother showing the birthstones of her children is known as mother’s ring. Sometimes this ring includes birthstones of mother and father also.


The process of making a ring or other piece of jewelry into which gemstones will be set.

Muff Chain

Muff chain is a long chain with a clasp used to suspend a lady’s fur muff.


A jewelry item containing several stones grouped together which creates the illusion of one large center stone.


A shiny iridescent substance made from the lining of mollusk shells or fish scales. Over time, layers of nacre build up to become a pearl.


A small portion of the original surface of a rough diamond or gemstone left by the cutter when polishing and faceting a stone which is frequently on or near the girdle. This is generally the sign of a cutter attempting to maximize the weight retention of the rough diamond or gemstone. Usually naturals do not affect the clarity grade and in most cases, they are undetectable to the naked eye.

Natural Gemstones

These have been formed in natural environment with no interference by human. They form in a variety of ways in many different environments from many different chemical compounds. By the time they appear in our jewelry they've been cut or polished, but they've not been treated or altered in other ways.

Natural pearl

A pearl that forms naturally, in an oyster, is known as natural pearl. When a grain of sand or other small object enters in the shell and the oyster is unable to eject the object then the oyster will coat the object with layers of nacre to form a pearl. There is no way to determine if an oyster contains a pearl, so to create a dependable pearl supply, the culturing process was invented.


A necklace is a jewelry item, which is worn around the neck. Necklaces come in numerous forms & styles and can be ornamented with pendants or lockets. Necklaces are mainly categorized by its size as well as its design and material, which include pearl necklace, choker, collar, princess necklace, matinee necklace, opera necklace, rope necklace etc.


A long, thin and sharp crystal inclusion which looks like a tiny rod.


A minor chip out of the surface of a diamond, usually found near or on the girdle of the stone.


A multipurpose hard, bright, silver-white metallic element of the iron group that is malleable, ductile and resistant to corrosion. It is most commonly used in alloys and plating.


An object or material which is not composed of metal.

Non-precious Metal

Non-precious metal is any metal that is not considered to be a precious metal.

Nose Stud

A nose stud is a simple style of jewelry that is worn through a piercing in the nostril and it contains single stone, pearl or metal ball on a straight post.


NYMEX is New York Mercantile Exchange which is a future exchange where platinum and palladium are traded.

Off Make

A poorly proportioned Diamond, particularly with poor symmetry.


Oiling is a process of applying mineral oil to a stone. It is used to mask inclusions or enhance the color of a gemstone. This technique is commonly used on emeralds to fill the cracks and to enhance the color.

Old European Cut

The earliest known form of brilliant cut diamond with a very small table, a heavy crown, and usually great overall depth. This is also known as old mine cut.


A flat and solid chain with close fitting rectangular links and worn high on the neck.


Onyx is a beautiful gemstone composed of chalcedony (a variety of quartz) and available in colors like black, white, black with white bands, red, brown etc. Onyx which is available in a red, brown or reddish brown color is known as Sardonyx. The bands that are found on this stone run parallel and are consistent. It is extremely similar to Agate, another variety of quartz. Agate bands are round or circular and are not consistent. Its hardness in between 6.5 to 7 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Madagascar, India, Brazil, United States, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.


The name Opal is derived from three sources: Sanskrit ‘Upala’, Latin ‘Opalus’, and Greek ‘Opallios’. All three of these words mean the same thing – precious stone. Opal is made from sand and water. It has the same chemical formula as quartz with the addition of 3 to 10 % water content. This is a very popular gemstone, mainly due to its wonderful variety of rich and beautiful colors like black, white, gray, yellow, red, orange and colorless. High quality opals have an extraordinary feature of opalescence in which light reflects and bounces around the very small structures of the stone, giving it a wonderful aura and sometimes iridescence. The group of fine Opals includes quite a number of wonderful gemstones which are differentiated on the basis of the variety, place of occurrence, and color of the main body, into Dark or Black Opal, White or Light Opal, Milk or Crystal Opal, Boulder Opal, Opal Matrix, Mexican and Fire Opal. Its hardness in between 5 to 6.5 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Australia, Brazil, Mali, Japan, Russia, USA and Mexico. Australia is the major supplier of Fine Opals and almost 95 per cent of all Opals come from Australian mines.


Opalescence is a kind of light play that happens with certain high quality stones. In these stones, light reflect and bounce around the stone structures which give them a wonderful aura and sometimes a milky blue form of iridescence.


Opaque refers to the transparency of a diamond or gemstone. Generally opaque stone does not transmit light as it is so thick with inclusions or flaws and due to that light is blocked from passing through the stone.

Opera Length

Opera necklace comes in a stretched length which ranges from 30 to 36 inches long. It is perfect for high or crew necklines and gives ease and versatility especially to evening wear.

Optical Effects

Some gemstones exhibit extraordinary optical effects known as phenomena. These rare and beautiful effects very often add value to gemstones. Some of these popular phenomena are Chatoyancy (cat's eye effect), Asterism (star effect), Color Change, Aventurescence and Iridescence.


A very rare and attractive fancy color of diamond.


An ore is a group of rocks containing valuable minerals that can be extracted.

Organic Gem

Gemstones made by or derived from living organisms are known as organic gems. These include pearls from oysters, amber from tree resin etc.


Orloff is a Mogul-Cut Rose diamond with 189.62 carat weight. It is with exceptionally pure clarity and slightly bluish green color. According to a tale, the Orloff was set as the eye of Vishnu's idol (one of the Hindu Gods) in the innermost sanctuary temple in Sriangam and was stolen in the year 1700 by a French deserter disguised as a Hindu.


A unit of weight. For precious metals, an ounce means a troy ounce which is equal to 31.1035 grams.

Oval Cut

The Oval Cut is a beautiful Fancy shape which offers great brilliance and fire through its 56 facets. This is an elongated version of round cut, provides the same brightness which comes from a round brilliant shaped diamond or gemstone.


Overlay is a type of jewelry decorative technique that involves two flat metal pieces. The top piece is highly polished whereas the bottom layer is darkened with oxidation to provide good contrast when the two pieces are soldered together.


Oxidation is a chemical process in which a metal is blackened as a reaction to oxygen.

Pad Insert

It is a molded rubber insert that usually fits into or over the clip portion of a clip earring for greater comfort of the wearer.


Palladium is a member of the Platinum group metal and it is lighter and less expensive than platinum. Palladium is usually mixed with yellow gold to create white gold.


Parcel is a packed paper envelop for diamonds which is purchased by buyer without selection of containing diamonds. Although sometimes buyer is permitted to reject a small number of diamond.

Parti-colored Gems

These are crystals that are made up of different colored parts. Stones made up of two colors are known as bicolor and made up of three colors are known as tricolor whereas sometimes these are available in more than three colors also. In some cases, Tourmaline exhibits as many as 15 different colors or shades within one crystal.

Past, Present and Future Collection

A collection of three stone jewelry representing the past, present and future of a relationship. It symbolizes the treasured past, the comforting present and the magical promise of the future.


Powder of very small diamonds in paste form, which is made with oil or any other binder and used as an abrasive for cutting and polishing any material including other diamonds.


The change in an object's surface resulting from natural ageing due to oxidation and wear.


An attractive style of jewelry setting in which numerous small stones are mounted as close together as possible to create a sparkly stone shell. The pave setting is very popular with diamonds and this setting style covers the whole piece of jewelry with diamond crust and conceals the metal under it.


Pavilion is the lower part of a diamond or gemstone, below the girdle.

Pavilion Angle

This is the angle between the main pavilion facets and the girdle. In a diamond, this is the most important dimension and ideal pavilion angle should be around 40.75° to 41°.

Pavilion Main Facet

The eight facets found on the pavilion of a round brilliant diamond.

Pear Cut

The Pear Cut is a fancy shape stone that looks like a teardrop due to its single point and rounded end with 56 to 58 facets. This shape is popular for its uniqueness and brilliance.


A Pearl is an organic gem, produced when certain mollusks, primarily oysters cover a foreign object with beautiful layers of nacre. A good sized Pearl can take between five to eight years to form, which is usually the entire life of the oyster or mollusk. There are two types of Pearls: Natural Pearls, formed inside wild oysters, practically impossible to find nowadays, and Cultured Pearls in which the production of the pearl is artificially induced. For producing cultured pearls, shell beads are placed inside an oyster and the oyster is returned to the water. When the pearls are later harvested, the oyster has covered the bead with layers of nacre. The finest Natural Pearls are fished almost exclusively from the Persian Gulf and the China Sea, while the best cultivated ones come from Japan, Korea and more recently Australia. Its hardness in between 2.5 to 4.5 on Mohs hardness scale and it should be handled with care. Pearls are usually white, sometimes with a creamy or pinkish tinge, but may be tinted with yellow, green, blue, brown, purple, or black. Pearls are available in different shapes: round, semi-round, button, drop, pear, oval, baroque, and ringed. Perfectly round Pearls are the rarest and most expensive. Fine Natural Pearls are much more expensive and rare to find than Cultured Pearls.

Pearl drop

A metal ring is attached to a real or imitate pearl which hangs from a piece of jewelry.


A pendant is a decorative ornament that hangs from jewelry items like necklace or earring. Pendants are generally made of precious stones and precious metals and often used to enhance the beauty of a necklace or an earring.


Pennyweight, usually shortened by dwt, is an American unit of weight for gold. One pennyweight equals 24 grains or 1/20 of a troy ounce. Also a pennyweight is equal to 1.5552 grams.


Peridot, a verity of mineral olivine, is a very old but still very popular gemstone. Peridot is formed deep within the earth under tremendous heat and pressure. The color of peridot is an integral part of its structure. Chemically peridot is an iron-magnesium-silicate and its intensity of the color depends upon the amount of iron contained by it. It is available in only one color shade with colors like yellow green, olive and brownish green. This gemstone is in fact identified by three names, Peridot, Chrysolith and Olivin. Its hardness in between 6.5 to 7 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Australia, Mexico, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Tanzania, China, Burma, Arizona, USA, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Periodic Table

It is a tabular method to classify, systematize and compare all the 116 (94 natural, 22 synthetic) basic chemical elements.


A diamond, which is exposed to daylight, ultra-violet or other light, continues to glow after the light source has been removed.


The term pick is used when seller permits buyer to select one or more diamonds from a parcel.

Pierced Earrings

Earrings that are specifically designed for pierced ears. Piercing is done either in the earlobe or some other external part of an ear and a wire or post is inserted through the earlobe ot that external part.


A pin is a type of fastener that contains small metal rod with a sharp point and generally used to attach a jewelry item on clothing.

Pin Back

A pin back is an assembled unit of a joint, catch and pin-stem that is pre-assembled on a metal plate. This entire unit is attached to a piece of jewelry by soldering or gluing.

Pink Diamond

Pink is one of the rarest and most desirable fancy colors for a diamond. Any diamond with pale reddish, purplish-red and purplish hue is known as pink diamond.

Pink Gold

Pink gold, also known as rose gold, is alloyed with copper, and at times possibly even with silver. The proportions are about three parts of 24-karat gold to one part of copper.


Tiny or very small inclusions, of pinpoint size, internal to a diamond. Whereas a cluster of pinpoints can form a cloud.


This term is used for vertical, columnar rocks that are originated due to lava flow and after that cooled and solidified in the neck of a volcano. When these rock masses consist of kimberlite, they often contain diamonds.


A tiny opening or surface mark on a diamond which often looks like a white dot.


Plating is the technique to cover or coat a thin layer of a metal to another metal surface mainly for the decorative purposes.


Platinum, an extremely rare and expensive metal, is a silvery gray precious metal often used for setting or mounting high quality diamonds and gemstones. Platinum is a strong, durable and dense metal which is valued for its white color and purity.


Platinum, an extremely rare and expensive metal, is a silvery gray precious metal often used for setting or mounting high quality diamonds and gemstones. Platinum is a strong, durable and dense metal which is valued for its white color and purity.


Pleochroism refers to the ability of certain gems to display two or more colors when viewed from different directions.

Plotting Diagram

A graphical representation or a diagram in a diamond certificate that illustrates the facets of a diamond as well as the approximate locations and types of internal and external characteristics. These characteristics can be spotted as internal and external by the different colors generally red and green.

Plumb Gold

It is a term used to describe gold jewelry that contains the precise amount of gold in the alloy that the karat mark indicates. A jewelry piece with 18kt plumb gold means that the gold will be at a minimum 18 parts gold mixed with 6 parts alloys.

Poesy Ring

A poesy ring is a ring with a short inscription, usually a love poem, on its outer surface.


A unit of measurement which is used to describe the weight of diamonds and other gemstones where one point is equivalent to one-hundredth of a carat. For example, a 1/2 carat diamond weighs 50 points.

Poison Ring

A poison ring contains a small-hinged box, which is made to resemble a normal setting. This box can be opened easily and its small space can be used to hold poison.


Polish is considered as smoothness of the surface of a fashioned stone in which optical reflection is maximized. Generally a polished stone does not show visible wheel marks or burn marks under 10X magnification. Polish is an indicator of the quality of stone’s cut which is graded as Ideal, Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair or Poor. In terms of metal, polish is considered as smoothness of the surface of a metal object in which optical reflection is maximized.

Polish Lines

Polish lines refer tiny or faint surface lines which are visible due to imperfect polishing or irregularities in crystal structure.

Polish Mark

A burn mark or surface clouding on a diamond caused by excessive heat while grinding or polishing.

Polished Girdle

A girdle that is polished or lapped to yield a lustrous and highly reflective surface.


The process of polish which converts a stone’s or metal's rough or irregular surface to a smooth surface by using various methods.


Porosity refers to the areas of the mold that absorbed some of the casting material and leaves the cast object with a rough, granular surface.


A post is a pin-like component attached to an earring that passes through the pierced earlobe and is usually secured by a clutch.

Pot Metal

Pot metal, also known as white metal, is a mixture of alloys which does not contain any precious metal.


The term powder refers to very small diamonds used for polishing other diamonds or materials.

Prayer Ring

A prayer ring is similar to poison ring in shape but the small space of its box is used to keep a small piece of paper with a prayer written on it.

Precious Metal

A precious metal is a metal with rare metallic chemical element. Gold, platinum and silver are widely traded and considered as precious metals due to their rarity, beauty and physical properties. Precious metals are less reactive than most elements, have high luster, and have higher melting points than other metals.

Precious, Precious

The term precious is used for stones as well as metal. Stones those are highly valuable for their hardness and rarity, are known as precious stones. Precious stones include diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires.


Price of a diamond or gemstone is extremely variable and based on all aspects of quality.

Princess Cut

The princess cut is a fancy shape gem which has pointed corners and square in shape. The ideal princess cut will have length to width ratio is as close to 1.00:1.00 as possible, as princess cut stones can range from this perfect square through to almost rectangular. This cut is the most popular non-round diamond cut.

Princess Length

Princess length is the most popular necklace length offers length from 17 to 19 inches that falls just below the throat. It comes in between choker and matinee length. A pendant can also be added for a bold and eye-catching look. Princess necklaces also look beautiful on all types of attire.

Promise Ring

A promise ring is given to a romantic partner to indicate a promise to be committed in a relationship. These rings are generally small and inexpensive.


Prong is a claw or wire used to fasten and hold a stone in a setting.

Prong Setting

Prong setting is the most frequently used method of setting diamonds or gemstones into jewelry. This setting usually consists of four or six small metal tips or claws to hold the stone tightly. This setting allows maximum amount of light to enter in a stone from all angles and because of this, stone appears more brilliant and larger than its actual size.


The consideration of each part of a diamond in relation to all other parts. Proportion is an important quality element which evaluates the overall shape of a diamond.


It is an equipment or tool for assessing, measuring and demonstrating the proportions of diamonds either individually or comparing them with ideal.


Purity is also known as clarity which describes the absence or presence of flaws inside or on the surface of a diamond or a gemstone. For diamonds, purity is graded on a scale from Flawless (no inclusions or blemishes visible under 10x magnification) to Included (eye visible inclusions or blemishes). Whereas for other colored gemstones, purity is classified into three ‘Types’. Type I colored stones include stones with very little or no inclusions, Type II colored stones include stones that often have a few inclusions whereas Type III colored stones include stones that usually always have inclusions.

Purity Ring

Purity ring is a ring that symbolizes virginity of the wearer.


An exceptional and attractive fancy diamond color.


Quartz is the most common mineral on earth. It is a crystalline mineral
that comes in many forms.

Radiant Cut

The Radiant Cut is a fancy shaped rectangular or square stone with cut corners. This shape comes with 62 to 70 facets and offers the elegance of the emerald shape with the brilliance of the princess shape. Trimmed corners are the signature of this shape, and they help to make the radiant cut a popular and versatile choice for jewelry.


The term ratio is also known as length to width ratio which is a comparison of the length and width of the girdle outline on fancy shaped diamonds. It is used to analyze the outline of fancy shapes only and it is never applied to round diamonds. The ratio is found by dividing the length of the diamond by the width where diamond width is always stated as 1. This ratio is simply a matter of personal aesthetic preferences and there is no defined ideal ratio for any of the fancy shaped diamonds.

Red Diamond

One of the rare most and very desirable colors for diamond.


The term reflection is used for important optical effect where light bounces or returns once it strikes the surface of a diamond or a gemstone.


The term Refraction is also used for optical effect where light deviates or change its direction once it enters in a diamond or a gemstone.

Refractive Index (RI)

When light meets the surface of a polished diamond or gemstone, some of the light is reflected, whereas most is absorbed. This entered light in the gem slows down and is bent from its original path due to the difference of density between air and stone. This process is known as refraction. This refraction varies from gem to gem depending on density and can be measured and used to help identify the gem type. This measurement is known as refractive index (RI).


Refractometer is a device that is used to measure the refractive index of gemstones including diamonds.

Regard Ring

A regard ring is a type of acrostic jewelry, which consists all or any of the precious stones named Ruby, Emerald, Garnet, Amethyst, Ruby, and a Diamond. The name ‘Regard’ taken from first letter of each gemstone.


Relief is a kind of decoration that projects from the surface, like a cameo.


A method of decorating a metal surface by pressing or hammering a design from the inside or backside and then polishing it up in front with a chasing hammer, producing a three-dimensional base-relief surface.


It is a process of giving the metal surface a rough or wrinkled texture.


Rhodium is a noble metal, from the platinum family, with a whitish gray appearance. Rhodium, in raw natural state, comes in liquid state and in jewelry industry, it is very popular plating metal which gives very smooth, shiny and expensive look, just like platinum, to a metal piece.

Rhodium Plating

In this process, rhodium is applied through the electroplating process to base metals like gold, sterling silver or some other metal alloy. This rhodium plating gives silver tone finish, which is darker than a silver plated finish and darkens with time rather than tarnishing like silver plate. Rhodium plating is virtually identical to Platinum but on a fraction of the cost and often it is used on fashion rings and brooches.


A ring is a circular band worn on the finger. Ring is the most popular and used jewelry item in the world. In most cultures, rings are worn as an emblem of engagement or wedding whereas in some cultures it is worn for the religious purposes also. Rings are available in wide range of styles and designs, which can be worn on any finger. Rings are mainly made of precious metal with gemstones attached to them but they can also be made of any material like plastic, wood, bone, glass etc.

Ring adjustor

Ring adjustor is a type of jewelry finding which is made and used to temporarily reduce the inside diameter of a ring.

Ring Guard

A ring guard is a tight ring worn above another ring to keep it from slipping off the finger.

Ring Size

Ring size is a measurement of how large the ring needs to be to fit on a person's finger. The average ring size for women is 6 and for men is 10.

Rolled Gold

Rolled gold is a very thin layer of gold that is applied to a lesser or base metal usually brass. Rolled gold metal pieces are marked rolled gold plate or R.G.P. or RGP.

Rope Chain

A style of chain with a series of small oval shaped links that are arranged in such a manner that they resemble a rope.

Rosary Ring

A rosary ring is a ring worn around the finger with 10 indentations and a cross on its surface, which exhibits one decade of rosary.

Rose Finish

A type of finished jewelry that resembles to rose gold jewelry but actually does not contain any gold content.


The term rough is used for any uncut or unpolished diamond or gemstone.

Rough Girdle

A grainy, pitted or uneven girdle surface, often with nicks.

Round Brilliant cut

The round brilliant cut is one of the most traditional and popular shapes. It has 58 facets which offer great brilliance and stability. These 58 facets include 1 table, 8 bezel facets, 8 star facets, 16 upper-girdle facets on the crown, 8 pavilion facets, 16 lower-girdle facets, and usually a culet on the pavilion, or at bottom. This cut is considered as ideal for a diamond because it maximizes a stone's sparkle.


Ruby is the red variety of the mineral corundum and known for its magnificent color, excellent hardness and outstanding brilliance. Only red corundum is entitled to be called ruby, all other colors being classified as sapphires. This stone is available in colors like bright red, brownish-red, purplish-red, dark red and blood red. The name ‘Ruby’ comes from Latin ‘Rubens’ which means ‘Red’. In Sanskrit, the ruby is called ‘Ratnaraj’, means ‘the king of precious stones’. This gemstone has excellent luster, rarity and durability. Its hardness is 9 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Burma, Thailand, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. Transparent rubies of large sizes are even rarer than diamonds.

Safety Catch

It is a type of catch which contains a tongue or pin that can be operated to close the opening in the catch, which prevents the loss of jewelry.

Safety Clasp

A safety clasp is a protected type of fastener that uses more than one method to secure the closure on a piece of jewelry such as necklace or bracelet. Safety clasps are frequently used for fine or more expensive jewelry items.

Sand Blasting

Sand blasting refers to the process of cleaning, smoothing or etching a hard surface by forcing very fine bits of solid material across that surface at high speeds.

Sand Casting

Sand casting is the oldest and most popular casting technique. Under this technique, natural sand (lake sand) or green sand (mixture of sand, clay and some water) is packed onto wood or metal pattern halves, removed from the pattern, and metal is poured into resultant cavities. And finally, mold is broken to remove casting. This technique requires a lead-time of days to obtain castings.


Sapphire is a verity of the mineral corundum and represents all the colors except red corundum, which is ruby. Its physical and chemical properties are virtually similar to properties of ruby. Blue is the main color of the sapphire whereas this gemstone is also found in colors like yellow, green, orange, pink, gray, colorless, black, brown, and purple. The word ‘Sapphire’ in its plain context refers only to blue sapphire, unless a prefix color is specified. Sapphire is one of the most desirable gems due to its color, hardness, durability, and luster. Its hardness is 9 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Sri Lanka, Thailand, Burma, Australia, India, Brazil and Africa.


Onyx which is available in a red, brown or reddish brown color is known as sardonyx.

Satin Finish

Satin finish is a texture of a metal surface that is in between matte finish and a brilliant one. In this finish, a series of tiny parallel lines are scratched onto a metal surface with a wire brush or polishing tool to produce texture. This finish gives impression of a soft, pearl-like luster instead of a bright polish.


A color's position in a diamond or in a gemstone on a neutral to vivid scale.


This term refers to the display of sparkle or reflection from the polished facets of a diamond visible when the observer is in motion.


A technique of using a tool to engrave a groove or furrow into the flat surface of the metal.


Scratch is a narrow, shallow, elongated nick on the surface of a diamond which usually appears as faint white lines, curved or straight, under magnification.

Screw Back

Screw back, a type of fastener, consists of a nut or clutch that actually screws onto a threaded post for tightening an earring against a non-pierced earlobe through tension adjustment.

Screw Clasp

A screw clasp is a type of fastener consisting two short barrels with screws, which are used to connect a necklace.

Secondary Deposit

Minerals and/or gemstones that have been separated from their original host rock, usually due to effects of weather, and deposited elsewhere. An alluvial deposit is an example of a secondary deposit.

Semi Precious, Semi Precious Stone

Stones those are valued for their beauty and not covered under any one of the four ‘Precious Stones’, Diamond, Emerald, Ruby or Sapphire, are known as semi precious stones. Semi precious stones are available in all price ranges from low priced to high priced. Semi precious stones are Alexandrite, Amethyst, Aquamarine, Citrine, Garnet, Iolite, Onyx, Opal, Pearl, Peridot, Tanzanite, Topaz, Tourmaline etc.


A style of jewelry setting that has the side stones already mounted, but which contains an empty set of prongs which are intended to mount a center stone as per the customer’s choice.

Semi-Mount Ring

A semi-mount ring is a finished ring without the placement of center stone. Side stones and all other stones are placed and metal finishing, stone finishing, engraving etc. of the jewelry ring is completed. Jewelry ring is sold in this manner to allow a buyer to put a center stone of his own choice. Semi-mount rings are generally used for diamond rings.


Setter is the person who puts diamonds or other gems into jewelry mounts.


Setting is the process of fixing a diamond or other gem into a mount to create a piece of jewelry.


The portion of a ring that encircles a finger. The shank holds the head (setting), which in turn, holds the gemstone. The shank and head are collectively referred as a ring mounting.


A diamond or a gemstone cut by Shape describes the outline of the stone and pattern of the facet arrangement. stones are available in various shapes like Modern Round Brilliant, Emerald, Princess, Heart, Oval, Pear etc. Round brilliant is the most popular shape for all jewelry items. All other non-round shapes are called fancy shapes.


A tool for sorting rough or polished diamonds by size. Diamond sieve sets have interchangeable sieve plates each drilled with different sizes holes.

Signet ring

A signet ring often contains a carved design like an intaglio. This ring was pressed into soft wax to authenticate or seal a document. The designs were usually a family crest, coat of arms or some other type of monogram or insignia.


Silver has been known and used for thousands of years and it is considered as one of the three precious metals along with gold and platinum. Pure silver is very soft metal with its lustrous white color. Silver is used as jewelry metal well before the development of white gold alloys, and before platinum could be isolated. It is normally stable in pure air and water but tarnishes when exposed to ozone, hydrogen sulfide or sulfur. The chemical symbol for silver is Ag.

Silver - Coin

A mixture of 90% pure silver and 10% metal alloy is known as Coin Silver.

Silver - Fine

It is the purest form of silver with 99.9% purity. In this form, silver is too soft to be used for jewelry.

Silver - Mexican

Silver from south of the border is known as Mexican silver, which consists anywhere from 90% to 99% pure silver.

Silver - Sterling

A mixture of 92.5% of pure silver and 7.5% of copper is known as Sterling Silver. Pure silver is alloyed with copper to give strength and durability. It is one of the most familiar and used forms of silver alloys.

Silver Eagles

It is referred as modern silver bullion coin.

Silver Finish

Jewelry or any other item that does not contain actual silver but finished in such a manner that it has the look of silver jewelry item.

Silver Plating

Silver plating is a method of depositing a silver layer on other metal surface mainly for decorative purposes on household and jewelry items.

Simulant, Simulated Stones

Simulated stones can be anything that resembles a natural gemstone but does not have the same physical characteristics or chemical composition. These items are also known as imitation stones and usually much less expensive than the natural forms. Simulated stones are often made of glass or plastic and most can be detected easily by a jeweler.

Single Cut

A very small round stone with only 17 or 18 facets, instead of the normal 57 or 58 facets of a full cut round brilliant. These facets include 8 bezel, 8 pavilions, a table and sometimes a culet facet.

Slight Inclusions,
SI, SI1, SI2

Slightly Inclusion is clarity grade that refers slight inclusions in a diamond which are easily visible under 10X magnifications. It is graded as SI1 and SI2.

Snake Chain

This chain gives smooth scaly texture like snake skin as small round metal rings are closely secured together forming a flexible tube.

Snap-bar Closure Earrings

A straight, hinged bar on the back of a lever back that lifts up and down in order to secure or release an earring.


Soldering is a technique, used by jewelers, in making and repairing jewelry. By using this technique, two or more metal pieces are joined by applying a molten metal or metal alloy that has a lower melting point than the two metals being joined. This molten metal forms a bond when cooled and solidified. Soldering is also used in adding findings or links in a metal piece.

Solid Gold

As per the rules of the Federal Trade Commission, the term ‘solid gold’ can be used for items which are not hollow and contain at least 10 karat or finer gold.


Solitaire ring is a ring with single gemstone often a diamond and does not contain side stones or any other gem embellishment. This ring looks exceptional with a high quality and larger sized diamond. Prong setting is the most popular setting type, but the size and number of the prongs can vary to highlight the look and features of the stone. Solitaire ring is mainly used as an engagement ring and exhibits beauty and elegance through its single quality gemstone.

Sort, Sorting

Usually this term is used to classify rough diamonds into groups depending on their size, color, surrounding material where as in case of polished diamonds it is used classify into grades depending on size, color, clarity.


Sparkle is the combination of gemstone’s fire and brilliance.

Specific Gravity

Specific gravity of a gem is an indication of its density. It is calculated by comparing the gemstone's weight with the weight of an equal volume of water. The greater the specific gravity of a gem, the heavier it will feel.

Split Ring

Split rings are most commonly used for key rings. It has an opening to the side of the ring at each end to allow a key or other small ring to slide into the slit and be pulled around the circumference of the ring until it reaches opening at the other end of the split.

Spread Stone

A Diamond which has been cut with a large table and a thin crown, to retain greater weight. In other words, a diamond which is cut too shallow.

Spring Hinge

It is a type of hinge that integrates a spring in its assembly to always keep a jewelry piece, such as a bracelet made of two halves, in the closed position.

Spring ring clasp

A spring ring clasp is a circular shaped tube, which is just short of a complete circle. Inside this tube, a wire exists that works on spring mechanism and projects from the tube to complete the circle. A lever exists on the edge of that incomplete circle and on pressing the lever, the wire can be pushed back into the tube, allows the ends of necklace or bracelet to be attached.

Stainless steel

An extremely durable metal alloy of steel and chromium that can be polished to resemble a precious metal and is almost unaffected to rust, discoloration and corrosion.


Stamping is the process of cutting or embossing a mark on metal sheet with a punch or a die.

Star Facet

The eight triangular facets that surround the table facet of a round, brilliant-cut diamond. It is named star facets because they from an eight pointed star when viewed from above.

Step Cut

Step cut is a style of faceting arrangements which is named because of its broad, flat planes that resemble stair steps. In this style of arrangement, there are three concentric rows of facets arranged around the table and, on the pavilion, there are three concentric rows arranged around the culet.


A type of fashionable earrings, which has long straight lines resembling sticks.


A general word for any gemstone including diamond.

Stud Earrings

A small, usually round earring with a single stone or metal ball on a straight post worn on pierced ears.

Surface Graining

Surface graining is an indication of structural irregularity in a diamond. Usually parallel lines are visible on the surface or facet edges which look similar to grain in wood. These grain lines reflect due to imperfect polishing.


Swage is a technique which uses a tool or hammer to bend or shape a metal available in solid state.


Symmetry is an important aspect of the stone cutting process which refers to the balance of the outline shape and alignment of the facets. It is graded as Ideal, Excellent, Very Good, Good, Fair or Poor.


A synthetic diamond or gemstone shares a natural stone's physical, chemical and optical qualities, but it is created in a laboratory. Some modern synthetic stones look more natural and are more difficult to identify, but an experienced jeweler or gemologist can usually detect them.


Table is the largest and flat facet which is placed on top of a diamond or a gemstone. Most of the light enters and exits from this part of a stone.

Table Percentage

The table percentage is a comparison of the diameter of the table facet to the diameter of the entire gemstone.


Tanzanite is a blue variety of the gemstone zoisite and named after the East African state of Tanzania, the only place in the world where it has been found. It is a trichroic gem which displays three layers of color. The colors dark blue, green-yellow and red-purple can be seen. Tanzanite is a beautiful gemstone, known for its brilliance but on the other hand it is a delicate gemstone which comes in between 6 to 7 on Mohs hardness scale.


A dull metal finish or luster due to its exposure to air or dirt that discolors the surface of metal as well as due to reaction between metals and other chemicals which discolors the surface, particularly silver which reacts with sulfur. Tarnish is a form of corrosion.

Tennis Bracelet

A bracelet which contains a symmetrical pattern of diamonds in a thin line is referred as tennis bracelet. The name, tennis bracelet, comes from an incident that took place in 1987 in a tennis match at US Open with tennis star Chris Evert, one of the all time great players of the game. In that match, she was wearing an elegant and stylish, light in-line diamond bracelet which accidentally broke during the match and the match was interrupted as she was allowed to recover her precious diamonds. After that incident, this type of bracelets got this new name and created a huge demand for this item. The tennis bracelet is one of the most popular bracelet styles.

Tension Setting

A method of setting diamonds and other gems using only the springiness of the mount to hold the stone firm. Although it look quite spectacular but very unsafe and it should be avoided.

Three Stone Diamond Ring

This ring holds three diamonds of the same quality and shape representing the past, present and future of a relationship. Usually the center stone is slightly larger than the other two side stones.


A tiara, a type of ancient jewelry item, is a semi-circular or sometimes circular piece of jewelry item worn on the head mainly by women. Tiara is usually made of precious metals and gemstones and worn on special occasions like marriage ceremonies, pageants etc. It is also known as diadem.


A tiepin, also known as tie clip, is a type of ornament that uses spring tension to attach the mid-portion of the tie to the shirt. Tiepin is usually made of precious metals and its front portion contains diamonds or other gems. Tiepins are generally worn by men on occasions like business meetings, marriage ceremonies, parties etc.


The Tiffany, the best of ever found yellow diamonds, weighs 128.51 carats and cut as cushion-shaped brilliant with 90 facets.


A silvery metallic element with a low melting point and resistant to corrosion, which is often used as soldering material and alloy for other precious metals. The chemical symbol for tin is Sn.


Titanium is an ultra-light but very strong and hypoallergenic metal comes in silvery color. In jewelry industry, it is generally used for wedding bands and watches.

Toe Ring

A toe ring is a kind of body ornament that is worn around one or more toes. Toe rings are very similar to finger rings except a major variation that is in toe rings, a small gap is available on the ring shank which allows the wearer to wear these rings easily. Toe rings are generally made of precious metals and worn mainly by women in second toe of either foot or both feet.

Toggle Clasp

A toggle clasp is a type of fastener that contains a ring on the one end and a short metal bar on the other end. This bar is inserted through the ring which sits across that ring in such a manner so it does not slide.


Tola is a unit of weight mainly used in India which is equal to 180 grains or 0.375 troy ounce or 11.7 grams. Usually gold bars are measured in tolas and the most popular of which is the 10-tola cast bar (3.75 troy oz).


An attribute of color which determines its lightness or darkness of shading and important in grading fancy colored diamonds and other gemstones.


Topaz, a member of quartz family, is a beautiful gemstone that most commonly found in yellow color. It is also available in various other colors like blue, brown, green, orange, pink, red, white, gold, colorless etc. The name topaz is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Tapas’, meaning ‘Fire’. Topaz, with 8 on Mohs hardness scale, is considered tough and durable gemstone but still it is not an invincible stone. It cracks and chips easily than many other gemstones. It is mainly found in Brazil, Sri Lanka, Burma, Nigeria, USA, Australia, Madagascar and Mexico.


Tourmalines are gemstones with deep brilliance and an incomparable variety of colors like black, red, pink, blue, green, grey and yellow. These Gemstones are mixed crystals of aluminium boron silicate with a complex and changing composition. The name tourmaline comes from the Singhalese words 'tura mali', means something like 'stone with mixed colors'. Tourmalines with different colors have different names. It comes in between 7 to 7.5 on Mohs hardness scale and it is mainly found in Brazil, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Madagascar, Pakistan, Afghanistan and USA.


Translucent is used to describe stones that allow light to pass through them, but the light is diffused.

Transparent, Transparency

Transparent is used to describe stones that are clear and transmit light without any diffusion so that objects can be seen through the stones. Ideally, a diamond should be completely transparent and any opacity is undesirable.

Treated Diamond, Treatment

Treated diamonds or gemstones are those which have been processed in some way to enhance their color or clarity. A number of treatment techniques are used to improve the color and appearance of natural and synthetic diamonds and gemstones. Heat treatment is the oldest method whereas other techniques include bleaching, dying, laser drilling, fracture filling, high pressure high temperature (HPHT), annealing, irradiation, and surface coloration.


Trichoric refers to a gemstone that displays three different colors or shades when viewed from different angles or directions.


Trigon refers to very small triangular marks usually on surfaces of rough and polished diamonds, due to twinning and other crystal growth factors.

Trilliant Cut, Trillion Cut

The trilliant cut is a triangular fancy shaped diamond or gemstone which is also known as trillion cut. This shape of stone looks unusual and displays a very sharp brilliance or fire. It may either have pointed corners or more rounded corners.


Trinket is a small decorative piece of jewelry, which is of little value or worth. It is also known as bauble.

Trio Set

Trio set comprises three rings which include woman’s engagement ring & matching wedding band and man’s matching wedding band.

Troy ounce

It is a unit for measuring the weight of precious metal. One troy ounce equals 31.1035 grams or 480 grains (20 pennyweights (dwt) each of 24 grains) or 1.09711 avoirdupois ounces.


In jewelry industry, Tungsten is a fairly new metal which often used for wedding bands. It is four times harder than titanium and resistant to corrosion.


Twinning refers to two or more mineral crystals that have grown together in a symmetrical nature and crystal growth direction of one crystal has changed or a negative crystal growth has taken place.


A piece of jewelry that either uses both white and yellow metals or uses two different tones of same metal.

Ultrasonic Cleaner

Ultrasonic Cleaner is a tool, generally used by jewelers, to clean jewelry effectively. The ultrasonic vibrations help to free most types of dirt, grime, and oils from these jewelry items. Some ultrasonic cleaners come with a heating unit also.

Ultraviolet light

Ultraviolet light consist short wavelengths in comparison of visible light’s wavelengths and due to this it is invisible to naked eye. Ultraviolet light is in between visible light and X-rays.

Upper Girdle Facet

Upper Girdle Facet is any of the sixteen facets on the crown, adjoining the girdle of a diamond.

Vacuum Coating

A coating process in which an extremely thin metallic coating is applied generally on very inexpensive metals, by volatilization within a vacuum.


Vermeil refers to gold plating, with at least 10-karat gold, onto the surface of sterling silver. The finishing looks are very similar to pure gold jewelry and very hard to differentiate.

Very Slight Inclusions,
VS, VS1, VS2

It is a clarity grade that refers minor or slight inclusions in a diamond which are difficult to see under 10X magnifications. It is graded as VS1 and VS2.

Very Very Slight Inclusions,

It is a clarity grade that refers tiny or very slight inclusions in a diamond which are extremely difficult to find, even under 10X magnifications. It is graded as VVS1 and VVS2.


The term vivid is used for color grading of fancy colored diamonds to denote the most intensely colored stones.

Wedding Ring

A wedding ring is a ring presented to spouse on a marriage ceremony to exhibit marital commitment. This ring symbolizes marriage and is generally made of precious metals like gold, platinum and precious stones mainly diamonds. Wedding ring is one of the most popular and demanded jewelry items and these days, it is used in most cultures of the world.

White Diamond

White diamonds are transparent or colorless and promoted as the best, but only because other attractive colors are extremely rare.

White Metal

White metal, also known as pot metal, is a mixture of alloys which do not contain any precious metal.


Wisp refers to a type of inclusion which occurs due to twinning or in other words it is an irregularity in the crystal growth.

X-Ray, X-Rays

X-rays are used to sort rough diamonds as most diamonds fluoresce when
exposed to these rays.


YAG stands for Yttrium Aluminum Garnet which is used as a simulant, so an imitation for a natural diamond.

Yellow Diamond

Generally most diamonds contain nitrogen which gives them a slight yellow tinge. But diamonds with more intense yellow hue are considered as fancy colored diamonds which make them rare and valuable.

Yellow Gold

Yellow gold is the most frequently seen and a timeless color. It is usually alloyed with silver and copper. Depending on the karat gold (14K, 18K or 22K), the color of yellow gold may vary from a softer shimmering yellow to a bright rich yellow. This is due to the varying alloy combinations. The color contrast of yellow gold is most suitable to diamonds and other delicately colored gemstones, as they can appear brilliant and vivid.


Zinc is a lustrous bluish-white metal from the magnesium-cadmium group and generally alloyed with other precious metals. This metal is also used for coating iron and steel to protect against rust. The chemical symbol for zinc is Zn.

Zirconium, Zirconia

Zirconium (cubic zirconium) or CZ is a widely used simulant, an imitation for a natural diamond. Although it is easily detectable by it’s 80% higher weight than a diamond of the same proportions or by thermal conductivity testing.


The chemical symbol for zinc.

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